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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) References

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt):

  1. Bernstein, L.; Bernstein, J. A.; Miller, M.; Tierzieva, S.; Berstein, D. I.; Lummus, Z.; Selgrade, M. K.; Doerfler, D. L.; Seligy, V. Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. Environ. Health Persp. 1999, 107, 7, 575-582.
  2. Biopesticide Fact Sheet: Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain M-200; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.
  3. Biopesticide Registration Action Document: Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies galleriae strain SDS-502; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013.
  4. Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 180.1011, Title 40, 2004.
  5. Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M. Long-Term Survival and Germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in a Field Trial. Can. J. Microbiol. 2002, 48, 3, 256-261.
  6. Pesticide Profiles: Toxicity, Environmental Impact, and Fate; Kamrin, M. A., Ed; Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, 1997; p 535-539, 583-584.
  7. Meadows, M. P. Bacillus thuringiensis, An Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice; Entwistle, P.F.; Cory, J. S.; Bailey, M. J.; Higgs, S., Eds; Bacillus thuringiensis in the Environment: Ecology and Risk Assessment; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: West Sussex, 1993; p 193-220.
  8. Petrie, K.; Thomas, M.; Broadbent, E. Symptom Complaints Following Aerial Spraying with Biological Insectiside Foray 48B. New Zeal. Med. J. 2003, 116, 1170.
  9. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Bacillus thuringiensis; EPA738-R-98-004; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.
  10. Sanahuja, G.; Banakar, R.; Twyman, R. M.; Capell, T.; Christou, P. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications. Plant Biotechnol. J. 2011, 9, 283-300.
  11. Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 1998, 62, 3, 775-806
  12. Hollingworth, R.M.; Bjeldanes, L. F.; Bolger, M.; Kimber, I.; Meade, BJ.; Taylor, S. L.; Wallace, K. B. The Safety of Genetically Modified Foods Produced through Biotechnology. Toxicol. Sci. 2003, 71, 2-8.
  13. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Surrey, UK, 2006.
  14. Whalon, M. E.; McGaughey, W. H. Insecticides with Novel Modes of Action: Mechanisms and Application; Ishaaya, I.; Degheele, D., Eds; Bacillus thuringiensis: Use and Resistance Management; Springer: New York, 1998; 106-137.
  15. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 217 - Microbial Pest Control Agent Bacillus thuringiensis; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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Integrated Pest Management

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Natural and Biological Pesticides



Other types of pesticides

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