Bed Bug Control Methods
Bed bugs can be very difficult to control, even for trained professionals. Many insecticides are not effective at killing the eggs, so a second treatment is often necessary to kill the juveniles after eggs hatch. Even worse, many populations of bed bugs have developed resistance to common insecticides, making some sprays ineffective. Regular, thorough inspections and a variety of treatment methods are often needed. Those methods may include heat and steam treatments, fumigation, and cold treatments. A trained professional must do some of these treatments.
Where to start:
- If you believe you have bed bugs, the first step is to properly identify them.
- If you share walls with neighbors, talk with your neighbors and landlord about making a coordinated effort to treat the problem.
- Read more about getting started here.
- Find and remove as many insects as possible. A crevice tool on a vacuum can be used for the tight areas where bed bugs like to hide. Immediately seal and dispose of the vacuum bag if bed bugs are suspected to be present. Clear packing tape or extra sticky lint rollers can also be used to remove bugs and eggs from surfaces.
- For bedding, clothing, and other heat durable items, drying them on high heat for 30 minutes will kill all bed bugs, including the eggs. Use dissolvable laundry bags or plastic bags that can be disposed of outside to transport clothing to shared laundromats. After drying, items should be stored in sealable plastic bins or bags to stop bugs from moving back in.
- If you discard infested items, clearly mark them by drawing a picture of a bug on the item(s), which can be understood by people who speak a different language. Also, wrap your items before moving them to keep bed bugs from spreading.
Making your bed a bug-free island:
- Pull your bed away from the wall and other furniture. Inspect your bed frame, box spring, and mattress thoroughly and remove any bugs you find.
- Place traps under your bed legs to stop bed bugs from climbing up to bite during the night. You can buy traps or build your own. Do not allow linens to touch the floor.
- Mattress and box spring encasements can be used to salvage infested beds or protect replacement beds. They will trap bugs inside that are already present, remove hiding areas, and make future inspections much easier. If only one encasement can be afforded, the box spring should be encased first.
- Always read and follow the label directions for any pesticide product, and make sure the pesticide is intended for treating bed bugs. The EPA has a bed bug product search tool.
- If you are working with a pest management professional or a landlord, talk to them before using any pesticides on your own.
- Do not use more of a pesticide than the label directions say to use. It could make the problem worse by causing bed bugs to disperse. It could also cause health effects.
- Avoid daily spot treatments for bed bugs. It can cause the pesticide-resistant population to grow, making elimination of the bed bugs more difficult.
- "Bug bombs" or total release foggers are not effective against bed bugs according to the National Center for Healthy Housing. The pesticide droplets generated by foggers typically do not penetrate the hiding spaces used by bed bugs.
- Typically, dust products should be applied in small amounts within the cracks and crevices where bed bugs hide. Read the label to be sure.
- Infested items that cannot be treated with pesticides (bedding, clothing, electronic items) can be treated with heat or cold to kill hidden bed bugs. See the resources below for the specific treatment methods.
- Large infestations may also be treated using structural fumigation.
The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) received hundreds of calls last year from all over the country about bed bugs. If you have questions about this, or any pesticide-related topic, please call NPIC at 1-800-858-7378 (8:00am - 12:00pm PST), or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Getting the Bed Bugs Out: A Guide to Controlling Bed Bugs in Your Home - MI Department of Community Health and MSU Extension
- Bed Bug Prevention, Detection and Control - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- Preventing and Getting Rid of Bed Bugs Safely - New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
- New IPM Methods for Bed Bugs - Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC)
- Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences - University of Minnesota Extension
- What's Bugging You? How to Deal with Bed Bugs - Cornell University
- Managing Bed Bugs - University of Nebraska Lincoln
- Managing Bed Bugs: Interactive Publication - University of Nebraska Lincoln
Tools to Control Bed Bugs:
- Cost-Effective and Money-Wasting Bed Bug Control Methods - Rutgers University
- How to Make a Bed Bug Interceptor Trap out of Common Household Items - University of Florida Extension
- Do-It-Yourself Bed Bug Trap - University of Nebraska-Lincoln
- Bed Bug Product Search Tool - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- How to Select a Bed Bug Control Provider - Texas A&M AgriLife Extension
- Bed Bug Treatment Using Insecticides – Virginia Tech
- Non-Chemical Bed Bug Management – Virginia Tech
- Homemade Bed Bug Interceptor Trap (3:00) – University of Florida Extension
- Control Bed Bugs at Home (5:19) – University of Minnesota
- Controlling Bed Bugs by Hand (5:30) – University of Minnesota
- Kill Bed Bugs Through Laundry (4:03) – University of Minnesota
- Bed Bugs and Integrated Pest Management (7:27) – Rutgers University