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Permethrin References


  1. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Production Council: Alton, England, 2006; pp 813-814.
  2. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substance, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007.
  3. Permethrin Facts (Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Fact Sheet); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticide and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.
  4. Vogue, P. A.; Kerle, E. A.; Jenkins, J. J. OSU Extension Pesticide Properties Database. http://ace.orst.edu/info/npic/ppdmove.htm (accessed Aug 2008), updated July 1994.
  5. Plumlee, K. H. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Mosby, Inc.: St. Louis, 2004; pp 188-190
  6. Bradberry, S. M.; Cage, S. A.; Proudfoot, A. T.; Vale, J. A. Poisoning due to Pyrethroids. Toxicol. Rev. 2005, 24 (2), 93-106.
  7. Bough, M. Permethrin Toxicosis in Cats. Vet. Tech. Sept 2000.
  8. Whittem, T. Pyrethrin and Pyrethroid Insecticide Intoxication in Cats. Small Animal Parasitol. 1995, 14 (4), 489-492.
  9. FAO. Pesticide Residues in Food, Toxicological Evaluations; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization: Rome, 1999.
  10. Richardson, J. A. Permethrin Spot-on Toxicoses in Cats. J. Vet. Emerg. Crit. Care 2000, 10.
  11. Meyer, E. K. Toxicosis in cats erroneously treated with 45 to 65% permethrin products. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1999, 215 (2), 198-203.
  12. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 87-88.
  13. Blondell, J.; Hawkins, M. S. Review of Permethrin Incidents Report; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Health Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004.
  14. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 94 - Permethrin; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, 1990; pp 26-33.
  15. Garey, J.; Wolff, M. S. Estrogenic and Antiprogestagenic Activities of Pyrethroid Insecticides. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998, 251, 855-859.
  16. Kunimatsu, T.; Yamada, T.; Ose, K.; Sunami, O.; Kamita, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Seki, T.; Nakatsuka, I. Lack of (Anti-) Androgenic and Estrogenic Effects of Three Pyrethroids (Esfenvalerate, Fenvalerate, and Permethrin) in the Hershberger and Utertrophic Assays. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002, 35, 227-237.
  17. Kim, I. Y.; Han, S. Y.; Kang, T. S.; Lee, B. M.; Choi, K. S.; Moohn, H. J.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, I. H.; Kwack, S. J.; Moon, A.; Ahn, M. Y.; Kim, H. S. Pyrethroid Insecticides, Fenvalerate and Permethrin, Inhibit Progesterone-induced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in T47D Human Breast Cancer Cells. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 2005, 68, 2175-2786.
  18. Draft List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts to be Considered for Screening Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007.
  19. Ishmael, J.; Litchfield, M. H. Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenic Evaluation of Permethrin in Rats and Mice. Toxicol. Sci. 1988, 11 (1), 308-322.
  20. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization: Lyon, France,1991; Vol. 53, pp 329-332.
  21. Permethrin - Fifth Revision of the HED Chapter of the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006; pp 19-43.
  22. Mytton, O. T.; McGready, R.; Lee, S. J.; Roberts, C. H.; Ashley, E. A.; Carrara, V. I.; Thwai, K. L.; Jay, M. P.; Wiangambun, T.; Singhasivanon, P.; Nosten, F. Safety of benzyl benzoate lotion and permethrin in pregnancy: a retrospective matched cohort study. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2007, 114 (5), 582-587.
  23. Kennedy, D.; Hurst, V.; Konradsdottir, E.; Einarson, A. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to permethrin and use of teratogen information. Am. J. Perinatol. 2005, 22 (2), 87-90.
  24. VanDerRhee, H. J.; Farquhar, J. A.; Vermeulen, N. P. E. Efficacy and Transdermal Absorption of Permethrin in Scabies Patients. Acta Derm. Venereol. 1989, 69 (2), 170-173.
  25. Anadon, A.; Martinez-Larranaga, M. R.; Diaz, M. J.; Bringas, P. Toxicokinetics of Permethrin in the Rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1991, 110, 1-8.
  26. Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, 2003.
  27. Gotoh, Y.; Kawakami, M.; Matsumoto, N.; Okada, Y. Permethrin Emulsion Ingestion: Clinical Manifestations and Clearance of Isomers. Clin. Toxicol. 1998, 36 (1), 57-61.
  28. Krieger, R., Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology - Agents, 2nd ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, 2001; Vol. 2, pp 1279-1280.
  29. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2005; pp 405-414.
  30. Imgrund, H. Environmental Fate of Permethrin; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring Branch: Sacramento, 2003.
  31. Sharom, M. S.; Solomon, K. R. Adsorption-desorption, degradation, and distribution of permethrin in aqueous systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1981, 29, 1122-1125.
  32. Holmstead, R. L.; Casida, J. E.; Ruzo, L. O.; Fullmer, D. G. Pyrethroid photodecomposition: Permethrin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1978, 26 (3), 590-595.
  33. Leahey, J. P.; Carpenter, P. K. The uptake of metabolites of permethrin by plants grown in soil treated with [14C] permethrin. Pestic. Sci. 1980, 11 (2), 279-289.
  34. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2003; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods: Washington, DC, 2003.
  35. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2007.
  36. Amweg, E. L.; Weston, D. P.; Ureda, N. M. Use and Toxicity of Pyrethroid Pesticides in the Central Valley, California, USA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2005, 24, 966-972.
  37. Holmes, R. W.; Anderson, B. S.; Phillips, B. M.; Hunt, J. W.; Crane, D. B.; Mekebri, A.; Connor, V. Statewide Investigation of the Role of Pyrethroid Pesticides in Sediment Toxicity in California's Urban Waterways. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 7003-7009.
  38. WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: First Addendum to Third Edition - Volume 1, Recommendations, 3rd ed.; World Health Organization: 2006; pp 190-195, 425-426.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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