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Sulfuryl Fluoride

Technical Fact Sheet

As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s webpage.

What is sulfuryl fluoride?

Molecular Structure -
Sulfuryl Fluoride

How does sulfuryl fluoride work?

What are some products that contain sulfuryl fluoride?

Will I be exposed to sulfuryl fluoride?

What is the toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride?

Animals

Humans

TOXICITY CLASSIFICATION - SULFURYL FLUORIDE
High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
(>50-500 mg/kg)
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
(>500-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
(≤0.05 mg/L)
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
(>0.05-0.5 mg/L)
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
(>0.5-2.0 mg/L)
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
(>2.0 mg/L)
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
(≤200 mg/kg)
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
(>200-2000 mg/kg)
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
(>2000-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or irritation persisting for more than 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 - 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) Severe irritation at 72 hours (severe erythema or edema) Moderate irritation at 72 hours (moderate erythema) Mild or slight irritation at 72 hours (no irritation or erythema)
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the "Acute Toxicity" section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-07.pdf

Does sulfuryl fluoride cause reproductive or teratogenic effects?

Animals

Humans

Is sulfuryl fluoride a carcinogen?

Animals

Humans

Does sulfuryl fluoride accumulate in the body?

Animals

Humans

What is the environmental fate and behavior of sulfuryl fluoride?

How does sulfuryl fluoride affect fish and wildlife?

What preparations are necessary prior to fumigation?

Date Reviewed: February 2000; some updates made in 2011

Please cite as: Sulfuryl Fluoride Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services, 2000. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/sftech.html.

References:

  1. Reregistration Elegibility Decision Document (RED) Sulfuryl Fluoride; EPA-738-R-93-016; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  2. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 11th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Farnham, Surray, UK, 1997.
  3. Kenaga, E. E. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of sulfuryl fluoride as an insecticidal fumigant. J. Econ. Entomol. 1957, 50, 1-6.
  4. Stewart, D. Sulfuryl fluoride, new fumigant for control of the drywood termite Kalotermes minor. J. Econ. Entomol. 1957, 50, 7-11.
  5. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 51: Sulfuryl Fluoride; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985.
  6. Specimen Label: Vikane Specialty Gas Fumigant; DowElanco: Indianapolis, IN, 1996.
  7. Bennett, G. W., Owens, J. M., Corrigan, R. M. Truman's Scientific Guide to Pest Control Operations, 5th ed; Advanstar Communications, Inc.: Cleveland, OH, 1997; pp 447-464.
  8. Clarkson, T. W. Inorganic and Organometal Pesticides. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology: Classes of Pesticides. Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, CA, 1991; Vol. 2.
  9. Meikle, R. W.; Stewart, D.; Globus, O. A. Drywood termite metabolism of Vikane fumigant as shown by labeled pool technique. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1963, 11, 226-30.
  10. Osbrink, W. L. A.; Scheffrahn, R. H.; Su, N. Y.; Rust, M. K. Laboratory comparisons of sulfuryl fluoride toxicity and mean time of mortality among ten termite species (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 1987, 80, 1044-7.
  11. Outram, I. Effects of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride on the gross metabolism of insect eggs. Fluoride Quart. Rep. 1970, 3, 85-91.
  12. Structural fumigation using sulfuryl fluoride: Dow Elanco's Vikane Gas Fumigant (Methyl Bromide alternative case study); EPA-430-R-96-021. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996; Vol. 2.
  13. General Information on Vikane Gas Fumigant; Form no. 311-56-077; DowElanco: Indianapolis, IN, 1994.
  14. Vikane Gas Fumigant: Structural Fumigation Manual; DowElanco: Indianapolis, IN, 1996.
  15. Gehring, P. J.; Nolan, R. J.; Watanabe, P. G.; Schumann, A. M. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology: Classes of Pesticides. Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, CA, 1991; p 675-676, Vol. 2.
  16. Sulfuryl Fluoride; Pesticide Tolerance. Fed. Reg. January 23, 2004, 69 (15), 3240-3257.
  17. Eisenbrandt, D. L.; Nitschke, K. D. Inhalation toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride in rats and rabbits. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1989, 12, 540-57.
  18. Nitschke, K. D.; Albee, R. R.; Mattsson, J. L.; Miller, R. R. Incapacitation and treatment of rats exposed to a lethal dose of sulfuryl fluoride. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1986, 7, 664-70.
  19. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Fumigants. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings; EPA-735-R-98-003; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.
  20. Fatalities resulting from sulfuryl fluoride exposure after home fumigation-Virginia. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 1987, 36 (36), 602-4, 609-11.
  21. Hanley, T. R., Jr.; Calhoun, L. L.; Kociba, R. J.; Greene, J. A. The effects of inhalation exposure to sulfuryl fluoride on fetal development in rats and rabbits. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1989, 13, 79-86.
  22. Mühle, J.; Huang, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Fraser, P. J.; Porter, L. W.; Greally, B. R.; O'Doherty, S.; Simmonds, P. G. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 2009, 114 (D5), D05306.
  23. Papadimitriou, V. C.; Portmann, R. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Burkholder, J. B. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Warming Potential of SO2F2. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112 (49), 12657-12666.
  24. Sulbaek Andersen, M. P.; Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.; Hurley, M. D.; Wallington, T. J. Atmospheric Chemistry of Sulfuryl Fluoride: Reaction with OH Radicals, Cl Atoms and O3, Atmospheric Lifetime, IR Spectrum, and Global Warming Potential. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43 (4), 1067-1070.
  25. Kamrin, M. A. Pesticide Profiles: Toxicity, Environmental Impact, and Fate; Lewis Publishers: New York, 1997.
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