1.800.858.7378 npic@ace.orst.edu
We're open from 8:00AM to 12:00PM Pacific Time, Mon-Fri

Glyphosate

Technical Fact Sheet

As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s webpage.

Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by the U.S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects. Laboratory animals are purposely given high enough doses to cause toxic effects. These tests help scientists judge how these chemicals might affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in cases of overexposure.

Molecular Structure -
Glyphosate

Chemical Class and Type:

Physical / Chemical Properties:

Glyphosate and associated forms
Active Ingredient Form1,4 Vapor pressure1,4,8 Henry's constant8 Molecular weight1,4,8 Solubility in water (mg/L)1,4 Log Kow1,4,8 Koc3
Glyphosate acid odorless, white solids 1.31 x 10-2 mPa (25 °C)
1.84 x 10-7 mmHg (45 °C)
4.08 x 10-19 atm·m3/mol 169.07 g/mol pH 1.9: 10,500 mg/L
pH 7.0: 157,000 mg/L
Less than -3.2 300 - 20,100
Glyphosate isopropylamine salt odorless, white solids 2.1 x 10-3 mPa (25 °C)
1.58 x 10-8 mmHg (25 °C)
6.27 x 10-27 atm·m3/mol 228.19 g/mol pH 4.06: 786,000 mg/L -3.87 or -5.4 300 - 20,100
Glyphosate ammonium salt odorless, white solids 9 x 10-3 mPa (25 °C)
6.75 x 10-8 mmHg (25 °C)
1.5 x 10-13 atm·m3/mol 186.11 g/mol pH 3.2: 144,000 mg/L -3.7 or 5.32 300 - 20,100

Uses:

Mode of Action:

Target Organisms

Non-target Organisms

Acute Toxicity:

Oral

Dermal

Inhalation

TOXICITY CLASSIFICATION - GLYPHOSATE
High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
(>50-500 mg/kg)
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
(>500-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
(≤0.05 mg/L)
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
(>0.05-0.5 mg/L)
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
(>0.5-2.0 mg/L)
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
(>2.0 mg/L)
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
(≤200 mg/kg)
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
(>200-2000 mg/kg)
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
(>2000-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or irritation persisting for more than 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 - 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) Severe irritation at 72 hours (severe erythema or edema) Moderate irritation at 72 hours (moderate erythema) Mild or slight irritation at 72 hours (no irritation or erythema)
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the "Acute Toxicity" section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-07.pdf

Signs of Toxicity - Animals

Signs of Toxicity - Humans

Chronic Toxicity:

Animals

Humans

Endocrine Disruption:

Carcinogenicity:

Animals

Humans

Reproductive or Teratogenic Effects:

Animals

Humans

Fate in the Body:

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Excretion

Medical Tests and Monitoring:

Environmental Fate:

Soil

Water

Air

Plants

Indoor

Food Residue

Ecotoxicity Studies:

Birds

Fish and Aquatic Life

Terrestrial Invertebrates

Regulatory Guidelines:

Date Reviewed: September 2010; revised: June 2015

Please cite as: Henderson, A. M.; Gervais, J. A.; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2010. Glyphosate Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/glyphotech.html.

References:

  1. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Hampshire, UK, 2006; pp 545- 548.
  2. RED Facts: Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  3. Roberts, T. R. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals-Part 1: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1998; pp 396-399.
  4. Herbicide Handbook, 8th ed.; Vencill, W. K. Ed.; Weed Science Society of America: Lawrence, KS, 2002; p 231-234.
  5. Roundup herbicide bulletin Number 1; Monsanto Agricultural Products Company: St. Louis, MO, 1980.
  6. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Glyphosate; EPA-738-R-93-014; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  7. Giesey, J. P.; Dobson, S.; Solomon, K. R. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup herbicide. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2000, 167, 35-120.
  8. SRC PhysProp Database: Glyphosate; Syracuse Research Corporation. http://www.syrres.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.aspx?id=386 (accessed Dec 2007), updated Jan 2010.
  9. Shaner, D. L. The impact of glyphosate-tolerant crops on the use of other herbicides and on resistance management. Pest Manag. Sci. 2000, 56, 320-326.
  10. Franz, J. E.; Mao, M. K.; Sikorski, J. A. Glyphosate: A Unique Global Herbicide; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1997; pp 521-527, 604-605, 615.
  11. WHO. Data Sheets on Pesticides: Glyphosate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
  12. Wu, J. Y.; Chang, S. S.; Tseng, C. P.; Deng, J. F.; Lee, C. C. Parenteral glyphosate-surfactant herbicide intoxication. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2006, 24 (4), 504-506.
  13. Williams, G. M.; Kroes, R.; Munro, I. C. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2000, 31, 117-165.
  14. Bradberry, S. M.; Proudfoot, A. T.; Vale, J. A. Glyphosate poisoning. Toxicol. Rev. 2004, 23 (3), 159-167..
  15. Bates, N.; Campbell, A. Handbook of Poisoning in Dogs and Cats - Glyphosate; Campbell, A.; Chapman, M., Eds.; Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford, England, 2000; pp 135-138.
  16. Monsanto Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Roundup and other gyphosate/tallowamine surfactant-containing herbicides: The clinical effects and their managment. Unpublished report, 1994, cited in Burgat, V.; Keck, G.; Guerre, P.; Bigorre, V.; Pineau, X. Glyphosate toxicosis in domestic animals: A survey from the data of the Centre National d'Informations Toxicologiques Veterinaires (CNITV). Vet. Hum.Toxicol. 1998, 40 (6), 363-367.
  17. Birch, M. Toxicological investigation of CP 67573-3. Unpublished Report no. 4-70-90, 1970, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Corporation, prepared by Younger Laboratories, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  18. Blaszcak, D., Primary dermal irritation study in rabbits for glyphosate technical (wetcake). Unpublished Report no. BD-88- 114, project number 4887, 1988, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Corporation, prepared by BioDynamics, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  19. Blaszcak, D. Eye irritation study in rabbits for glyphosate technical (wetcake). Unpublished Report no. BD-88-114, project no. 4888-88, 1988, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Corporation, prepared by BioDynamics, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  20. Maibach, H. I. Irritation, sensitization, photoirritation and photosensitization assays with a glyphosate herbicide. Contact Derm. 1986, 15, 152-156.
  21. Rattray, N. J. Glyphosate acid: 4-hour acute inhalation toxicity study in rats. Unpublished Report no. CTL/P/4882, study no. HR2884, 1996, submitted to WHO by Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Basel, Switzerland, prepared by Zeneca Agrochemicals, Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Maccelsfield, Cheshire, England. Pesticide Residues in Food - 2004: Toxicological evaluations; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
  22. Welch, S. Glyphosate. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Plumlee, K. H., Ed.; Mosby: St. Louis, 2004; pp 162-163.
  23. Burgat, V.; Keck, G.; Guerre, P.; Bigorre, V.; Pineau, X. Glyphosate toxicosis in domestic animals: A survey from the data of the Centre National d'Informations Toxicologiques Veterinaires (CNITV). Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 1998, 40 (6), 363-367.
  24. Talbot, A. R.; Shiaw, M. H.; Huang, J. S.; Yang, S. F.; Goo, T. S.; Wang, S. H.; Chen, C. L.; Sanford, T. R. Acute poisoning with a glyphosatesurfactant herbicide ('Roundup'): A review of 93 cases. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 1991, 10 (1), 1-8.
  25. Acquavella, J. F.; Weber, J. A.; Cullen, M. R.; Cruz, O. A.; Martens, M. A.; Holden, L. R.; Riordan, S.; Thompson, M.; Farmer, D. Human ocular effects from self-reported exposures to Roundup herbicides. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 1999, 18 (8), 479-486.
  26. Reyna, M. Twelve month study of glyphosate administered by gelatin capsule to beagle dogs. Unpublished Report no. 830116, project no. ML-83-137, 1985, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company Environmental Health. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  27. Stout, L.; Ruecker, F. Chronic study of glyphosate administered in feed to albino rats. Unpublished Report no. MSL-10495 R.D. 1014, 1990, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Agricultural Company. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  28. Atkinson, C.; Strutt, A.V.; Henderson, W.; Finch, J.; Hudson, P. Glyphosate: 104 week combined chronic feeding/oncogenicity study in rats with 52 week interim kill (results after 104 weeks). Unpublished report No. 7867, IRI project no. 438623, 1993, submitted to World Health Organization by Cheminova A/S, Lemvig, Denmark, prepared by Inveresk Research International, Tranent, Scotland. Pesticide Residues in Food - 2004: Toxicological evaluations; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.
  29. FAO. Pesticide Residues in Food - 2004: Toxicological evaluations; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome, Italy, 2004.
  30. FAO. Pesticide Residues in Food - 2011: Toxicological evaluations; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2011; pp. 373–385.
  31. Human-Health Assessment Scoping Document in Support of Registration Review: Glyphosate; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009.
  32. Lavy, T. L. Conifer seedling nursery worker exposure to glyphosate. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1992, 22, 6-13.
  33. Jauhiainen, A.; Rasanen, K.; Sarantila, R.; Nuutinen, J.; Kangas, J. Occupational exposure of forest workers to glyphosate during brush saw spraying work. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 1991, 52 (2), 61-64.
  34. Acquavella, J. F.; Alexander, B. H.; Mandel, J. S.; Gustin, C.; Baker, B.; Chapman, P.; Bleeke, M. Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study. Environ. Health Perspect. 2004, 112 (3), 321-326.
  35. Chan, P. C.; Mahler, J. F. NTP Technical Report on toxicity studies of glyphosate (CAS No. 1071-83-6) administered in dosed feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Toxicology Program: Research Triangle Park, NC, 1992; pp 12-13, 24.
  36. Draft List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts to be Considered for Screening under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Fed. Regist. June 18, 2007, 72 (116), pp 33486-33503.
  37. Knezevich, A.; Hogan, G. A chronic feeding study of glyphosate (Roundup technical) in mice. Unpublished Report no. BDN-77420, project no. 77-2061, 1983, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company, prepared by BioDynamics, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  38. McConnel, R. A chronic feeding study of glyphosate (Roundup technical) in mice: pathology report on additional kidney sections. Unpublished project no. 77-2061A, 1985, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by BioDynamics, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  39. Cavas, T.; Konen, S. Detection of cytogenic and DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to a glyphosate formulation using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutagenesis 2007, 22 (4), 263-268.
  40. De Roos, A. J.; Blair, A.; Rusiecki, J. A.; Hoppin, J. A.; Svec, M.; Dosemeci, M.; Sandler, D. P.; Alavanja, M. C. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113 (1), 49-54.
  41. Guyton, K. Z.; Loomis, D.; Grosse, Y.; El Ghissassi, F.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L.; Guha, N.; Scoccianti, C.; Mattock, H.; Straif, K. Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate. Lancet Oncol. 2015, 16, 490–491.
  42. Rodwell, D. E.; Tasker, E. J.; Blair, A. M.; et al. Teratology study in rats. Unpublished report no. 401-054, unpublished study no. 999- 021, 1980, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company, prepared by International Research and Development Corporation. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  43. Rodwell, D. E.; Tasker, E. J.; Blair, A. M.; et al. Teratology study in rats. Unpublished report no. 401-056, 1980, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company, prepared by International Research and Development Corporation. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  44. Moxon, M. E. Glophosate acid: multigeneration reproduction toxicity in rats. Unpublished report no. CTL/P/6332, study no. RR0784, 2000, submitted to WHO by Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Basel, Switzerland, prepared by Zeneca Agrochemicals, Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, England. Pesticide Residues in Food - Evaluations Part 2: Toxicological; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome, Italy, 2004.
  45. Arbuckle, T. E.; Lin, Z.; Mery, L. S. An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environ. Health Perspect. 2001, 109 (8), 851-7.
  46. Brewster, D. W.; Warren, J.; Hopkins, W. E. I. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: Tissue distribution, identification, and quantification of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 1991, 17, 43-51.
  47. Wester, R. C.; Melendres, J.; Sarason, R.; McMaster, J.; Maibach, H. I. Glyphosate skin binding, absorption, residual tissue distribution, and skin decontamination. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 1991, 16, 725-732.
  48. Monsanto Corporation. The metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague Dawley rats- Part I. Excretion and tissue distribution of glyphosate and its metabolites following intravenous and oral administration. Unpublished report no. MSL-7215, 1988, submitted to WHO by Monsanto Ltd, prepared by Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory/Monsanto Life Sciences Research Center, St. Louis, Missouri. Environmental Health Criteria 159, Toxicological Evaluations - Glyphosate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland,1988.
  49. Bodden, R. M. Metabolism study of synthetic 13C/14C-labeled glyphosate and aminomethylphoshonic acid in lactating goats. Unpublished report, 1988, cited in Williams, G. M.; Kros, R.; Munro, I. C., prepared by Hazelton Laboratories America, Inc. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate for humans. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2000, 31, 117-165.
  50. Bodden, R. M., Metabolism study of synthetic 13C/14C-labeled glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in laying hens. Unpublished report, 1988, cited in Williams, G. C.; Kroes, R.; Munro, I. C., prepared by Hazelton Laboratories America, Inc. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate for humans. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2000, 31, 117-165.
  51. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 159, Toxicological Evaluations - Glyphosate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.
  52. Hori, Y.; Fujisawa, M.; Shimada, K.; Hirose, Y. Determination of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite in biological specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A case of poisoning by roundup herbicide. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2003, 27 (3), 162-166.
  53. Ridley, W.; Mirly, K. The metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats. Part I. Excretion and tissue distribution of glyphosate and its metabolites following intravenous and oral administration. Unpublished report no. 86139 (MSL 7215), RD no. 877, 1988, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  54. Howe, R.; Chott, R.; McClanahan, R. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats. Part II: Identification, characterization, and quantitation of glyphosate and its metabolites after intravenous and oral administration. Unpublished report no. MSL-7206, RD No. 877, 1988, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  55. Talbot, A.; Ku, T. S.; Chen, C. L.; Li, G. C.; Li, H. P. Glyphosate levels in acute Roundup herbicide poisoning. 1994 Toxicology World Congress Abstracts. Ann. Emerg. Med. 1995, 26, 717.
  56. Aprea, C.; Colosio, C.; Mammone, T.; Minoia, C.; Maroni, M. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposure: a review of analytical methods. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2002, 769 (2), 191-219.
  57. Motojyuku, M.; Saito, T.; Akieda, K.; Otsuka, H.; Yamamoto, I.; Inokuchi, S. Determination of glyphosate, glyphosate metabolites, and glufosinate in human serum by gas chromatography-mass spectometry. J. Chromatogr. B 2008, 875, 509-514.
  58. Sato, K.; Jin, J. Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Miwa, T.; Suenami, K.; Takekoshi, Y.; Kanno, S., Integrated pulsed amperometric detection of glufosinate, bialaphos and glyphosate at gold electrodes in anion-exchange chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A. 2001, 919 (2), 313-320.
  59. Biagini, R. E.; Smith, J. P.; Sammons, D. L.; MacKenzie, B. A.; Striley, C. A.; Robertson, S. K.; Snawder, J. E. Development of a sensitivity enhanced multiplexed fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for the measurement of glyphosate, atrazine and metolachlor mercapturate in water and urine. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2004, 379 (3), 368-374.
  60. Curwin, B. D.; Hein, M. J.; Sanderson, W. T.; Striley, C.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Reynolds, S. J.; Alavanja, M. C. Urinary pesticide concentrations among children, mothers and fathers living in farm and non-farm households in iowa. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2007, 51 (1), 53-65.
  61. Castle, S.; Ruzo, L.; Katheryn, S. Degradation study: photodegradation of carbon 14 glyphosate in a buffered aqueous solution at pH 5, 7, and 9 by natural sunlight. Unpublished report no. 233W-1, 233W:1020, 1990, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protections Agency, prepared by Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  62. Brightwell, B.; Malik, J. Solubility, volatility, absorption, and partition coefficients, leaching and aquatic metabolism of MON 0573 and MON 0101. Unpublished report no. MSL-0207, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  63. Tsui, M. T. 60. K.; Chu, L. M. Environmental fate and non-target impact of glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup) in a subtropical wetland. Chemosphere 2008, 71, 439-446.
  64. Nicholls, R. Confined rotational crop study of glyphosate Part I: In-field portion. Unpublished report no. EF-88-22, 1990, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Pan-Agricultural Labs, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA- 738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  65. McMullan, P.; Honeggar, J.; Logusch, E. Confined rotational crop study of glyphosate Part II. Quantitation, characterization and identification of glyphosate and its metabolites in rotational crops. Unpublished report no. MSL-981, 1990, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Agricultural Labs. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA- 738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  66. Curwin, B. D.; Hein, M. J.; Sanderson, W. T.; Nishioka, M. G.; Reynolds, S. J.; Ward, E. M.; Alavanja, M. C. Pesticide contamination inside farm and nonfarm homes. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2005, 2 (7), 357-67.
  67. Fink, R.; Beavers, J. One-generation reproduction study in bobwhite quail: glyphosate technical. Unbpublished report no. 139- 141. 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  68. Fink, R.; Beavers, J. Final report: One-generation reproduction study in mallard ducks: glyphosate technical. Unpublished report no. 139-143, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  69. Folmar, L. C.; Sanders, H. O.; Julin, A. M. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1979, 8, 269-278.
  70. Howe, C. M.; Berrill, M.; Pauli, B. D.; Helbing, C. C.; Werry, K.; Veldhoen, N., Toxicity of glyphosate-based pesticides to four North American frog species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2004, 23 (8), 1928-1938.
  71. McAllister, W.; McKee, M.; Schofield, M.; et al. Chronic toxicity of glyphosate (AB-82-036) to Daphnia magna under flow-through test conditions. Chronic toxicity final report ABC 28742. Unpublished report, 1982, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company , prepared by Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  72. Bentley, R., Acute toxicity of roundup (technical) to grass shrimp (Palaemonetas vulgaris) and fiddler crab (Uca pagilator). Unpublished report no. SF1536, 1974, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company , prepared by Bionomics, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  73. Bentley, R. Acute toxicity of roundup (technical) to Atlantic oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Unpublished report no. SF1536, 1974, submitted to study U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company , prepared by Bionomics, Inc., CDL 094171-L. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  74. Frasier, W. D.; Jenkins, G. The acute contact and oral toxicities of CP67573 and MON2139 to worker honey bees. Unpublished report no. 4G1444, 1972, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Monsanto Company , prepared by Huntingdon Research Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Glyphosate; EPA-738-F-93-011; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993.
  75. 2006 Edition of Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories; EPA-822-R-06-013; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.
Facebook Twitter Youtube