1.800.858.7378 npic@ace.orst.edu
We're open from 8:00AM to 12:00PM Pacific Time, Mon-Fri

Picaridin

Technical Fact Sheet

As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s webpage.

Molecular Structure -
Picaridin

Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by the U.S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects. Laboratory animals are purposely given high enough doses to cause toxic effects. These tests help scientists judge how these chemicals might affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in cases of overexposure.

Chemical Class and Type:

Physical / Chemical Properties:

Uses:

Mode of Action:

Target Organisms

Non-target Organisms

Acute Toxicity:

Oral

Dermal

Inhalation

Signs of Toxicity - Animals

TOXICITY CLASSIFICATION - PICARIDIN
High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
(>50-500 mg/kg)
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
(>500-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
(≤0.05 mg/L)
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
(>0.05-0.5 mg/L)
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
(>0.5-2.0 mg/L)
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
(>2.0 mg/L)
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
(≤200 mg/kg)
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
(>200-2000 mg/kg)
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
(>2000-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or irritation persisting for more than 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 - 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) Severe irritation at 72 hours (severe erythema or edema) Moderate irritation at 72 hours (moderate erythema) Mild or slight irritation at 72 hours (no irritation or erythema)
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the "Acute Toxicity" section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-07.pdf

Signs of Toxicity - Humans

Chronic Toxicity:

Animals

Humans

Exposure: Effects of picaridin on human health and the environment depend on how much picaridin is present and the length and frequency of exposure. Effects also depend on the health of a person and/or certain environmental factors.

Endocrine Disruption:

Carcinogenicity:

Animals

Humans

Reproductive or Teratogenic Effects:

Animals

Humans

Fate in the Body:

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Excretion

Medical Tests and Monitoring:

Environmental Fate:

Soil

Water

Air

The "half-life" is the time required for half of the compound to break down in the environment.

1 half-life = 50% remaining
2 half-lives = 25% remaining
3 half-lives = 12% remaining
4 half-lives = 6% remaining
5 half-lives = 3% remaining

Half-lives can vary widely based on environmental factors. The amount of chemical remaining after a half-life will always depend on the amount of the chemical originally applied. It should be noted that some chemicals may degrade into compounds of toxicological significance.

Plants

Indoor

Food Residue

Ecotoxicity Studies:

Birds

Fish and Aquatic Life

Terrestrial Invertebrates

Regulatory Guidelines:

Date Reviewed: March 2009

Please cite as: Gervais, J. A.; Wegner, P.; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2009. Picaridin Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/Picaridin.html.

References:

  1. New Pesticide Fact Sheet - Picaridin; EPA 737-F-96-005; United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.
  2. WHO. WHO Specifications and Evaluations for Public Health Pesticides - Icaridin; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.
  3. Moore, S. J.; Debboun, M. Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, and Uses - History of Insect Repellents; Debboun, M.; Frances, S. P.; Strickman, D., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2007; pp 3-29.
  4. Frances, S. P. Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, and Uses - Picaridin; Debboun, M.; Frances, S. P.; Strickman, D., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2007; pp 337-340.
  5. Katz, T. M.; Miller, J. H.; Hebert, A. A. Insect repellents: Historical perspectives and new developments. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2008, 58 (5), 865-871.
  6. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Picaridin; HSDB Number 7374; U.S Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ (accessed July 2008), updated Jan 2006.
  7. Pesticide Products. Pest Bank [CD-ROM] 2008.
  8. Klun, J. A.; Khrimian, A.; Debboun, M. Repellent and Deterrent Effects of SS220, Picaridin, and DEET Suppress Human Blood Feeding by Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi. J. Med. Entomol. 2006, 43 (1), 34-39.
  9. Boeckh, J.; Breer, H.; Geier, M.; Hoever, F-P.; Kruger, B. W.; Nentwig, G.; Sass, H. Acylated 1,3-Aminopropanols as Repellents against Bloodsucking Arthropods. Pestic. Sci. 1996, 48 (4), 359-373.
  10. Amer, A.; Mehlhorn, H. The sensilla of Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and their importance in repellency. Parasitol. Res. 2006, 99, 491-499.
  11. Licciardi, S.; Herve, J. P.; Darriet, F.; Hougard, J.-M.; Corbel, V. Lethal and behavioral effects of three synthetic repellents (DEET, IR3535 and KBR 3023) on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in laboratory assays. Med. Vet. Entomol. 2006, 20, 288-293.
  12. Serafini, M. P. Registration with Conditions of the New Active Ingredient Picaridin; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Solid and Hazardous Materials, Bureau of Pesticides Management: Albany, NY, 2005.
  13. Corazza, M.; Borghi, A.; Zampino, M. R.; Virgili, A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to an insect repellent: double sensitization to picaridin and methyl glucose dioleate. Acta Derm. Venereolo. 2005, 85 (3), 264-265.
  14. Wahle, B. S.; Sangha, G. K.; Lake, S. G.; Sheets, L. P.; Croutch, C.; Christenson, W. R. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity testing in the Sprague-Dawley rat of a prospective insect repellant (KBR 3023) using the dermal route of exposure. Toxicol. 1999, 142 (1), 41-56.
  15. Jones, R. D.; Hastings, T. F., Technical grade KBR 3023: a chronic percutaneous toxicity study in the Beagle dog. Summary of Toxicology Data: Picaridin; Moore, T., Ed.; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch: Sacramento, 2005.
  16. Wahle, B. S.; Sangha, G. K.; Elcock, L. E.; Sheets, L. P.; Christenson, W. R. Carcinogenicity testing in the CD-1 mouse of a prospective insect repellant (KBR 3023) using the dermal route of exposure. Toxicol. 1999, 142 (1), 29-39.
  17. Astroff, A. B.; Freshwater, K. J.; Young, A. D.; Stuart, B. P.; 17. Sangha, G. K.; Thyssen, J. H. The conduct of a two-generation reproductive toxicity study via dermal exposure in the Sprague-Dawley rat - a case study with KBR 3023 (a prospective insect repellent). Reprod. Toxicol. 1999, 13 (3), 223-232.
  18. Astroff, A. B.; Young, A. D.; Holzum, B.; Sangha, G. K.; Thyssen, J. H. Conduct and interpretation of a dermal developmental toxicity study with KBR 3023 (a prospective insect repellent) in the Sprague-Dawley rat and Himalayan rabbit. Teratol. 2000, 61 (3), 222-230.
  19. Ecker, W.; Weber, H. [Hydroxyethyl-1-14C] KBR 3023: Rat metabolism study after intravenous injection and after dermal application. Summary of Toxicology Data: Picaridin; Moore, T., Ed.; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch: Sacramento, 1997.
  20. Selim, S.; Zuidlaren, G. P. A single dose open label study to investigate the absorption and excretion of a 14C-labeled insect repellent (KBR 3023) from two different formulations after dermal application to healthy volunteers. Summary of Toxicological Data: Picaridin; Moore, T., Ed.; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch: Sacramento, 1994.
  21. Knepper, T. P. Analysis and fate of insect repellents. Water Sci. Technol. 2004, 50 (5), 301-308.
  22. Knepper, T. P. Analysis and mass spectrometric characterization of the insect repellent Bayrepel and its main metabolite Bayrepel-acid. J. Chromatogr. A. 2004, 1046, 159-166.
  23. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2007; U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology Programs: Washington, DC, 2008.
  24. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006; U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods: Washington, DC, 2008.
Facebook Twitter Youtube