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Spinosad References


  1. Blagburn, B. L.; Young, D. R.; Moran, C.; Meyer, J. A.; Leigh-Heffron, A.; Paarlberg, T.; Zimmermann, A. G.; Mowrey, D.; Wiseman, S.; Snyder, D. E. Effects of orally administered spinosad (Comfortis®) in dogs on adult and immature stages of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). Vet. Parasitol. 168, 3-4, 312-17.
  2. Breslin, W. J.; Marty, M. S.; Vedula, U.; Liberacki, A. B.; Yano, B. L. Developmental toxicity of Spinosad administered by gavage to CD® rats and New Zealand White rabbits. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2000, 38, 12, 1103-12.
  3. Caldwell, B.; Sideman, E.; Seaman, A.; Shelton, A.; Smart, C. Material Fact Sheet Spinosad. Resource Guide for Organic Insect and Disease Management; Cornell University: New York, New York, 2013; pp 163-167
  4. Deardorff, A.; Stark, J. Acute Toxicity and Hazard Assessment of Spinosad and R-11 to Three Cladoceran Species and Coho Salmon. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2009, 82, 5, 549-53.
  5. FDA Approves Head Lice Treatment for Children and Adults; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration: Silver Spring, MD, 2011.
  6. Hanley, T. R.; Breslin, W. J.; Quast, J. F.; Carney, E. W. Evaluation of Spinosad in a Two-Generation Dietary Reproduction Study Using Sprague-Dawley Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2002, 67, 1, 144-52.
  7. Miles, M. The effects of spinosad, a naturally derived insect control agent, to the honeybee. Bull. Insectol. 2003, 56, 1, 119-24.
  8. Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for Certain Pesticide Chemicals in or on Food; Fed. Regist. 2000, 65, 86, 25721-24.
  9. Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Spinosad; Fed. Regist. 2007, 72, 206, 60550-51.
  10. Pesticide Fact Sheet Spinosad; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.
  11. Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances; Fed. Regist. 2000, 65, 8, 1802-09.
  12. WHO. Pesticide Residues in Food, Toxicological Evaluations, Spinosad; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
  13. Kollman, W. S. Environmental Fate of Spinosad; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring Branch: Sacramento, 2002.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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