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Fipronil References


  1. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Hampshire, England, 2006; pp 462-464.
  2. New Pesticide Fact Sheet - Fipronil; EPA 737-F-96-005; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC, 1996; pp 1-10.
  3. Ying, G. G.; Kookana, R. S. Sorption of Fipronil and Its Metabolites on Soils From South Australia. J. Environ. Sci. Health 2001, B36 (5), 545-558.
  4. Pesticide Products. Pest-Bank [CD-ROM] 2007.
  5. Cole, L. M.; Nicholson, R. A.; Casida, J. E. Action of Phenylpyrazole Insecticides at the GABA-Gated Chloride Channel. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1993, 46, 47-54.
  6. Ratra, G. S.; Casida, J. E. GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity. Toxicol. Lett. 2001, 122, 215-222.
  7. WHO. Pesticide Residues in Food - 1997: Fipronil; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Lyon, 1997.
  8. Hainzl, D.; Cole, L. M.; Casida, J. E. Mechanisms for Selective Toxicity of Fipronil Insecticide and Its Sulfone Metabolite and Desulfinyl Photoproduct. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1998, 11, 1529-1535.
  9. Ratra, G. S.; Kamita, G. S.; Casida, J. E. Role of Human GABAA Receptor B3 Subunit in Insecticide Toxicity. Toxic. Appl. Pharmacol. 2001, 172, 233-240.
  10. Zhao, X.; Yeh, J. Z.; Salgado, V. L.; Narahashi, T. Sulfone metabolite of fipronil blocks gamma-aminobutyric acid- and glutamate-activated chloride channels in mammalian and insect neurons. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2005, 314 (1), 363-73.
  11. Hainzl, D.; Casida, J. E. Fipronil insecticide: Novel photochemical desulfinylation with retention of neurotoxicity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1996, 93, 12764-12767.
  12. Fipronil: Third Reevaluation - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee; HED Doc. No. 014400; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000; pp 1-24.
  13. Dange, M. Acute Oral LD50 in Rats. Unpublished Report No. SA 93074. Submitted to the World Health Organization by Rhone-Poulenc, Inc.: Research Triangle Park, NC, 1994.
  14. Kamijima, M.; Casida, J. E. Regional Modification of [3H] Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate Binding in Mouse Brain GABAA Receptor by Endosulfan, Fipronil, and Avermectin B1a. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000, 163, 188-194.
  15. Fung, H. T.; Chan, K. K.; Ching, W. M.; Kam, C. W. A Case of Accidental Ingestion of Ant Bait Containing Fipronil. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2003, 41 (3), 245-248.
  16. Jennings, K. A.; Keller, R. J.; Doss, R. B. Human Exposure to Fipronil from Dogs Treated with Frontline. Controv. Toxicol. 2002, 44 (5), 301-303.
  17. Mohamed, F.; Senarathna, L.; Percy, A.; Abeyewardene, M.; Eaglesham, G.; Cheng, R.; Azher, S.; Hittarage, A.; Dissanayake, W.; Sheriff, M. H. R.; Davies, W.; Buckley, N. A.; Eddleston, M. Acute Human Self-poisoning with the N-Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil--a GABAA-Gated Chloride Channel Blocker. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2004, 42 (7), 955-963.
  18. Chodorowski, Z., M.D., Ph.D.; Anand, J. S., M.D., Ph.D. Accidental Dermal and Inhalation Exposure with Fipronil--A Case Report. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2004, 42 (2), 189-190.
  19. WHO. Pesticide Residues in Food 2000: Fipronil (addendum); International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  20. Fipronil; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food. Fed. Regist. August 24, 2005, 70 (163), 49599-49607.
  21. Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, Part III, Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986, Evaluation of Fully Approved or Provisionally Approved Products: Evaluation on Fipronil (Horticultural Uses); No. 212; Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticide Safety Directorate: York, England, 2004; pp 1-239.
  22. Birckel, P.; Cochet, P.; Benard, P.; Weil, A. Cutaneous Distribution of 14C-Fipronil in the Dog and in the Cat Following a Spot-On Administration; Third World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology: Edinburgh, Scotland, 1996.
  23. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2005.
  24. Bobe, A.; Meallier, P.; Cooper, J. F.; Coste, C. M. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Abiotic Degradation of Fipronil (Hydrolysis and Photolysis). J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998, 46, 2834-2839.
  25. Ying, G.; Kookana, R. S. Persistence and movement of fipronil termiticide with under-slab and trenching treatments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2006, 25 (8), 2045-2050.
  26. Ngim, K. K.; Crosby, D. G. Abiotic Processes Influencing Fipronil and Desthiofipronil Dissipation in California, USA, Rice Fields. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2000, 20 (5), 972-977.
  27. Fipronil and Degradation Products in the Rice-Producing Areas of the Mermentau River Basin, Louisiana, February- September 2000; USGS Fact Sheet FS-010-0; U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S Geological Survey. http://la.water.usgs.gov/publications/pdfs/FS-010-03.pdf (accessed Oct 2007) updated March 2003.
  28. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 1993-2003; U.S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Silver Springs, MD, 2005.
  29. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology Programs: Washington, DC, 2007.
  30. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary Reports for Downloading, Viewing, and Printing; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Pesticide Data Program. http://www.ams.usda.gov (accessed June 2008) updated Jan 2008.
  31. Cary, T. L.; Chandler, G. T.; Volz, D. C.; Walse, S. S.; Ferry, J. L. Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil Induces Male Infertility in the Estuarine Meiobenthic Crustacean Amphiascus tenuiremis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38 (2), 522-528.
  32. Chaton, P. F.; Ravanel, P.; Tissut, M.; Meyran, J. C. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Fipronil in the Nontarget Arthropodan Fauna Associated with Subalpine Mosquito Breeding Sites. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2001, 52, 8-12.
  33. Elzen, G. W. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Residues on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2001, 94, 55-59.
  34. Balanca, G.; de Visscher, M.-N. Impacts on Nontarget Insects of a New Insecticide Compound used Against the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal 1775)). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1997, 32, 58-62.
  35. Mostert, M. A.; Schoeman, A. S.; Van der Merwe, M. The relative toxicities of insecticides to earthworms of the Pheretima group (Oligochaeta). Pest Manag. Sci. 2002, 58, 446-450.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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