1.800.858.7378 npic@ace.orst.edu
We're open from 8:00AM to 12:00PM Pacific Time, Mon-Fri

DEET References


  1. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) DEET; EPA 738-R-98-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 1-34.
  2. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), DEET; HSDB Number 1582; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov (accessed Jan 2008), updated March 2003.
  3. Technical Guide No. 36: Personal Protective Measures Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance; Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center (DPMIAC), Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB): Washington, DC, 2002; pp 21-25.
  4. Pesticide Products. Pest Bank [CD-ROM] 2007.
  5. Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health (TEACH) Summaries: Diethyltoluamide (DEET) Chemical Summary; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/teach/chem_summ/DEET_summary.pdf (accessed Aug 2007), updated April 2007.
  6. Davis, E. E.; Sokolove, P. G. Lactic Acid-sensitive Receptors on the Antennae of the Mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J. Comp. Physiol. 1976, 105, 43-54.
  7. McIver, S. B. A model for the mechanism of action of the repellent DEET on the Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 1981, 18 (5), 357-361.
  8. Snow, W. F. The effect of a reduction in expired carbon dioxide on the attractiveness of human subjects to mosquitoes. Bull. Ent. Res. 1970, 60, 43-48.
  9. Sudakin, D. L.; Trevathan, W. R. DEET: A review and update of safety and risk in the general population. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2003, 41 (6), 831-839.
  10. Lewis, C. M., Silva, M., Sanborn, J. N,N-Diethyl-Meta-Toluamide (DEET) Risk Characterization Document; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation: Sacramento, CA, 2000; pp 18-21, 32-33.
  11. Gwaltney-Brant, S. Insecticides and Molluscicides. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Plumlee, K. H., Ed.; Mosby, Inc.: St. Louis, 2004; pp 177-192.
  12. Bell, J. W.; Veltri, J. C.; Page, 12. B. C. Human Exposures to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide Insect Repellents Reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers 1993-1997. Int. J. Toxicol. 2002, 21 (5), 341-352.
  13. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Other Insecticides, Acaricides, and Repellents. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 80-82.
  14. Schoenig, G. P.; Osimitz, T. G.; Gabriel, K. L.; Hartnagel, R.; Gill, M. W.; Goldenthal, E. I. Evaluation of the Chronic Toxicity and Oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Toxicol. Sci. 1999, 47 (1), 99-109.
  15. Schoenig, G. P.; Osimitz, T. G. DEET. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Krieger, R. I., Ed.; Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, 2001; Vol. 2, pp 1439-1455.
  16. Knowles, C. O. Miscellaneous Pesticides. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology; Hayes Jr., W. J., Laws Jr., E.R., Eds.; Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, 1991; Vol. 3, pp 1500-1505.
  17. Ross, E. A.; Savage, K. A.; Utley, L. J.; Tebbett, I. R. Insect repellent interactions: sunscreens enhance DEET (N,N-diethyl-mtoluamide) absorption. Drug Metab. Dispos. 2004, 32 (8), 783-785.
  18. Kasichayanula, S.; House, J. D.; Wang, T.; Gu, X. Percutaneous characterization of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from topical skin application. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007, 223 (2), 187-194.
  19. Selim, S.; Hartnagel, R. E., Jr.; Osimitz, T. G.; Gabriel, K. L.; Schoenig, G. P. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of N,N,- Dietyl-m-toluamide Following Dermal Application to Human Volunteers. Environ. Appli. Toxicol. 1995, 25, 95-100.
  20. Stinecipher, J.; Shah, J. Percutaneous Permeation of N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) From Commercial Mosquito Repellents and the Effect of Solvent. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1997, 52, 119-135.
  21. Brand, R. M.; Jendrzejewski, J. L.; Henery, E. M.; Charron, A. R. A Single Oral Dose of Ethanol Can Alter Transdermal Absorption of Topically Applied Chemicals in Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2006, 92 (2), 349-355.
  22. Usmani, K. A.; Rose, R. L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Taylor, W. G.; Brimfield, A. A.; Hodgson, E. In Vitro Human Metabolism and Interactions of Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide. Drug Metab. Dispos. 2002, 30 (3), 289-294.
  23. Snodgrass, H. L.; Nelson, D. C.; Weeks, M. H. Dermal penetration and potential for placental transfer of the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 1982, 43 (10), 747-753.
  24. Schoenig, G. P.; Hartnagel, R. E., Jr.; Osimitz, T. G.; Llanso, S. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of N,Ndiethyl- M-toluamide in the rat. Drug Metab. Dispos. 1996, 24 (2), 156-163.
  25. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2005.
  26. Rivera-Cancel, G.; Bocioaga, D.; Hay, A. G. Bacterial Degradation of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET): Cloning and Heterologous Expression of DEET Hydrolase. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2007, 73 (9), 3105-3108.
  27. Seo, J.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, S. D.; Cha, C. J.; Ahn, J. H.; Hur, H. G. Biodegradation of the Insecticide N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide by Fungi: Identification and Toxicity of Metabolites. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2005, 48 (3), 323-328.
  28. Sandstrom, M. W.; Kolpin, D. W.; Thurman, E. M.; Zaugg, S. D. Widespread detection of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in U.S. streams: comparison with concentrations of pesticides, personal care products, and other organic wastewater compounds. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2005, 24 (5), 1029-1034.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

Related Topics:

What are pests?

Learn about a pest

Identify a pest

Control a pest

Integrated Pest Management

What are pesticides?





Natural and Biological Pesticides



Other types of pesticides

Facebook Twitter Youtube