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Atrazine References:

  1. Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision - Atrazine; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.
  2. Roberts, T. Atrazine. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals; Part One: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1998.
  3. NPIC Product Research Online (NPRO): Atrazine; National Pesticide Information Center: Corvallis, OR, 2019.
  4. Shaner, D. L. Herbicide Handbook-Atrazine, 10th ed.; Weed Science Society of America: Lawrence, KS, 2014; pp 54-55.
  5. Draft Human Health Risk Assessment for Registration Review - Atrazine; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2018.
  6. Atrazine Chemical Summary: Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health; U.S. EPA Office of Children's Health Protection, EPA Region 5 TEACH Workgroup, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007.
  7. Atrazine Risk Characterization Document; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch: Sacramento, CA, 2001.
  8. >Hazardous Substances Data Bank; Atrazine, CASRN: 1912-24-9; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/ a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+413 (accessed Apr 2019), updated 2018.
  9. Hayes, W. J.; Laws, E. R Atrazine. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology Agents, Classes of Pesticides; Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, CA, 1991; Vol. 3, pp 1381-1383.
  10. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: Atrazine, 6th ed.; U.S Environmental Protection Agency, US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013.
  11. Coulombe, A. Toxicological Profile for Atrazine; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, 2003.
  12. Summary of Toxicology Data - Atrazine; California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch: Sacramento, CA, 2000.
  13. Cavas, T. In Vivo Genotoxicity Evaluation of Atrazine and Atrazine–Based Herbicide on Fish Carassius Auratus Using the Micronucleus Test and the Comet Assay. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2011, 49 (6), 1431–1435.
  14. Atrazine. Pesticide Residues in Food: Evaluations Part 2-Toxicological; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization: Geneva, 2007; pp 44-54.
  15. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans- Some Chemicals That Cause Tumours of the Kidney or Urinary Bladder in Rodents and Some Other Substances; World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 1999; Vol. 73.
  16. Campos-Pereira, F. D.; Oliveira, C. A.; Pigoso, A. A.; Silva-Zacarin, E. C. M.; Barbieri, R.; Spatti, E. F.; Marin- Morales, M. A.; Severi-Aguiar, G. D. C. Early Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Atrazine on Wistar Rat Liver: A Morphological, Immunohistochemical, Biochemical, and Molecular Study. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2012, 78, 170–177.
  17. Lim, S.; Young Ahn, S.; Chan Song, I.; Hee Chung, M.; Chul Jang, H.; Soo Park, K.; Lee, K.-U.; Kim Pak, Y.; Kyu Lee, H. Chronic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistence. PloS One 2009, 4 (4).
  18. Davis, L. K.; Murr, A. S.; Best, D. S.; Fraites, M. J. P.; Zorrilla, L. M.; Narotsky, M. G.; Stoker, T. E.; Goldman, J. M.; Cooper, R. L. The Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Atrazine on Pubertal and Postnatal Reproductive Indices in the Female Rat. Reprod. Toxicol. 2011, 32 (1), 43–51.
  19. Endocrine Disruption Screening Program Weight of Evidence Conclusions on the Tier I Screening Assays for the List 1 Chemicals; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015.
  20. Benchmark Dose Technical Guidance; Risk Assessment Forum, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012.
  21. Agopian, A. J.; Cai, Y.; Langlois, P. H.; Canfield, M. A.; Lupo, P. J. Maternal Residential Atrazine Exposure and Risk for Choanal Atresia and Stenosis in Offspring. J. Pediatr. 2013, 162, 581–586.
  22. Chevrier, C.; Limon, G.; Monfort, C.; Rouget, F.; Garlantezec, R.; Petit, C.; Durand, G.; Cordier, S. Urniary Biomarkers of Prenatal Atrazine Expsoure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in the PELAGIE Birth Cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 2011, 119 (7), 34–40.
  23. Cragin, L. A.; Kesner, J. S.; Bachand, A. M.; Barr, D. B.; Meadows, J. W.; Krieg, E. F.; Reif, J. S. Menstrual Cycle Characteristics and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Women Exposed to Atrazine in Drinking Water. Environ. Res. 2011, 111, 1293–1301.
  24. Hoppin, J. A.; Umbach, D. M.; Long, S.; London, S. J.; Henneberger, P. K.; Blair, A.; Alavanja, M.; Beane Freeman, L. E.; Sandler, D. P. Pesticides Are Associated with Allergic and Non Allergic Wheeze Among Male Farmers. Environ. Health Perspect. 2017, 125 (4), 535–543.
  25. Lebov, J. F.; Engel, L. S.; Richardson, D.; Hogan, S. L.; Hoppin, J. A.; Sandler, D. P. Pesticide Use and Risk of End- Stage Renal Disease among Licensed Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Occup. Environ. Med. 2016, 73, 3–12.
  26. LaVerda, N. L.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Alavanja, M. C.; Hunting, K. L. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators from the Agricultural Health Study. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 2015, 78 (20), 1255–1276.
  27. Refined Ecological Risk Assessment for Atrazine; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016.
  28. Ney, R. E. Fate and Transport of Organic Chemicals in the Environment, 2nd ed.; Government Institutes, Inc.: Rockville, MD, 1995.
  29. Vogue, P.A.; Kerle E. A.; Jenkins, J.J. OSU Extension Pesticide Properties Database-Atrazine; Oregon State University Extension. http://npic.orst.edu/ingred/ppdmove.htm (accessed April 2019), updated 1994.
  30. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 17th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Alton, Hampshire, UK, 2015; pp 53-54.
  31. Cumulative Triazine (Atrazine, Simazine, Propazine) Drinking Water Assessment; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015.
  32. Edwards, C.A.; Bohlen, P.J. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms, 3rd ed.; Chapman and Hall: London, 1996.
  33. Van Der Kraak, G. J.; Hosmer, A. J.; Hanson, M. L.; Kloas, W.; Solomon, K. R. Effects of Atrazine in Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles: An Analysis Based on Quantitative Weight of Evidence. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2014, 44 (sup5), 1–66.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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