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Copper Sulfate

Technical Fact Sheet

As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency's webpage.

Molecular Structure -
Copper Sulfate

Chemical Class and Type:

Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by the U.S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects. Laboratory animals are purposely given high enough doses to cause toxic effects. These tests help scientists judge how these chemicals might affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in cases of overexposure.


Physical / Chemical Properties:

Active Ingredient CASRN3 Formula3 Copper (%Cu)3 Form6,7 Vapor pressure (mmHg at 25 °C)1 Molecular weight (g/mol)3 Specific gravity / density6,7 Solubility (water)1,7
Copper sulfate pentahydrate 7758-99-8 CuSO4 · 5H2O 25.4 Blue crystals,
granules or powder
Non-volatile 249.65 2.286 SG
(15.6 °C / 4 °C)
148g/kg (0 °C),
736g/kg (100 °C)
Basic copper sulfate 1344-73-6 3Cu(OH)2 · CuSO4 54.2 Light blue /
green fine powder
Not found 468.29 0.800-0.900 SG Insoluble (soluble in acids)

Mode of Action:

Target Organisms

Non-target Organisms

Acute Toxicity:


LD50/LC50: A common measure of acute toxicity is the lethal dose (LD50) or lethal concentration (LC50) that causes death (resulting from a single or limited exposure) in 50 percent of the treated animals. LD50 is generally expressed as the dose in milligrams (mg) of chemical per kilogram (kg) of body weight. LC50 is often expressed as mg of chemical per volume (e.g., liter (L)) of medium (i.e., air or water) the organism is exposed to. Chemicals are considered highly toxic when the LD50/LC50 is small and practically non-toxic when the value is large. However, the LD50/LC50 does not reflect any effects from long-term exposure (i.e., cancer, birth defects or reproductive toxicity) that may occur at levels below those that cause death.



Signs of Toxicity - Animals

High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
(>50-500 mg/kg)
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
(>500-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
(≤0.05 mg/L)
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
(>0.05-0.5 mg/L)
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
(>0.5-2.0 mg/L)
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
(>2.0 mg/L)
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
(≤200 mg/kg)
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
(>200-2000 mg/kg)
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
(>2000-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or irritation persisting for more than 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 - 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) Severe irritation at 72 hours (severe erythema or edema) Moderate irritation at 72 hours (moderate erythema) Mild or slight irritation at 72 hours (no irritation or erythema)
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the "Acute Toxicity" section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2018-04/documents/chap-07-mar-2018.pdf

Signs of Toxicity - Humans

Chronic Toxicity:


NOAEL: No Observable Adverse Effect Level

NOEL: No Observed Effect Level

LOAEL: Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level

LOEL: Lowest Observed Effect Level


Exposure: Effects of copper sulfate on human health and the environment depend on how much copper sulfate is present and the length and frequency of exposure. Effects also depend on the health of a person and/or certain environmental factors.

Endocrine Disruption:




Reproductive or Teratogenic Effects:



Fate in the Body:





Medical Tests and Monitoring:

Environmental Fate:






Food Residue

Ecotoxicity Studies:


Fish and Aquatic Life

Terrestrial Invertebrates

Regulatory Guidelines:

Reference Dose (RfD): The RfD is an estimate of the quantity of chemical that a person could be exposed to every day for the rest of their life with no appreciable risk of adverse health effects. The reference dose is typically measured in milligrams (mg) of chemical per kilogram (kg) of body weight per day.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System, IRIS Glossary, 2009. https://www.epa.gov/iris/iris-glossary#r

Date Reviewed: December 2012

Please cite as: Boone, C.; Gervais, J.; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2012. Copper Sulfate Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/cuso4tech.html.


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