1.800.858.7378 npic@ace.orst.edu
We're open from 8:00AM to 12:00PM Pacific Time, Mon-Fri

Paradichlorobenzene

Technical Fact Sheet

As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s webpage.

Molecular Structure -
Paradichlorobenzene

Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by the U.S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects. Laboratory animals are purposely given high enough doses to cause toxic effects. These tests help scientists judge how these chemicals might affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in cases of overexposure.

Chemical Class and Type:

Physical / Chemical Properties:

Uses:

Mode of Action:

Target Organisms

Non-target Organisms

Acute Toxicity:

Oral

Dermal

Inhalation

Signs of Toxicity - Animals

TOXICITY CLASSIFICATION - PARADICHLOROBENZENE
High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
(>50-500 mg/kg)
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
(>500-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
(≤0.05 mg/L)
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
(>0.05-0.5 mg/L)
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
(>0.5-2.0 mg/L)
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
(>2.0 mg/L)
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
(≤200 mg/kg)
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
(>200-2000 mg/kg)
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
(>2000-5000 mg/kg)
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
(>5000 mg/kg)
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or irritation persisting for more than 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 - 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) Severe irritation at 72 hours (severe erythema or edema) Moderate irritation at 72 hours (moderate erythema) Mild or slight irritation at 72 hours (no irritation or erythema)
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the "Acute Toxicity" section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-07.pdf

Signs of Toxicity - Humans

Chronic Toxicity:

Animals

Humans

Exposure: Effects of paradichlorobenzene on human health and the environment depend on how much paradichlorobenzene is present and the length and frequency of exposure. Effects also depend on the health of a person and/or certain environmental factors.

Endocrine Disruption:

Carcinogenicity:

Animals

Humans

Reproductive or Teratogenic Effects:

Animals

Humans

Fate in the Body:

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Excretion

Medical Tests and Monitoring:

Environmental Fate:

Soil

The "half-life" is the time required for half of the compound to break down in the environment.

1 half-life = 50% remaining
2 half-lives = 25% remaining
3 half-lives = 12% remaining
4 half-lives = 6% remaining
5 half-lives = 3% remaining

Half-lives can vary widely based on environmental factors. The amount of chemical remaining after a half-life will always depend on the amount of the chemical originally applied. It should be noted that some chemicals may degrade into compounds of toxicological significance.

Water

Air

Plants

Indoor

Food Residue

Ecotoxicity Studies:

Birds

Fish and Aquatic Life

Terrestrial Invertebrates

Regulatory Guidelines:

Date Reviewed: December 2010

Please cite as: Gervais, J.; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2010. Paradichlorobenzene Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/PDBtech.html.

References:

  1. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  2. Toxicological profile for dichlorobenzenes; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, GA, 2006.
  3. Para-Dichlorobenzene: HED chapter of the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office : Washington, DC, 2007.
  4. Scuderi, R. Determination of para-dichlorobenzene releases from selected consumer products. Unpublished report, 1986, submitted to U.S Department of Health and Human Services prepared by Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO. Toxicological profile for dichlorobenzenes; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, GA, 2006.
  5. Hollingsworth, R. L.; Rowe, V. K.; Hoyle, H. R.; Spencer, H. C. Toxicity of paradichlorobenzene. AMA Arch. Ind. Health 1956, 14 (2), 138-147.
  6. Lide, D. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics; CRC Press Inc.: Boca Raton, FL, 1994; p 16-25.
  7. Yan, R. M.; Chiung, Y. M.; Pan, C. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Liu, P. S. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Toxicol. 2008, 253 (1-3), 28-35.
  8. Gaines, T. B.; Linder, R. E. Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1986, 7, 299-308.
  9. Morris, T. Primary eye irritation study in rabbits: para-dichlorobenzene. Unpublished lab project no. 91-8305-21(B), 1992, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Hill Top Biolabs, Inc. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  10. Morris, T. Primary skin irritation study in rabbits: para-dichlorobenzene. Unpublished lab project no. 91-8305- 21(A), 1992, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared prepared by Hill Top Biolabs, Inc. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  11. Morris, T. Delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs (Buehler technique): para-dichlorobenzene. Unpublished lab project no. 9-8305-21(C), 1992, sumbitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Hill Top Biolabs, Inc. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  12. Newton, P. An acute inhalation toxicity study of para-dichlorobenzene in the rat. Unpublished lab project no. 89- 8230, 1990, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Bio/dynamics, Inc. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  13. Oehme, F. W.; Kore, A. M. Miscellaneous indoor toxicants. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Peterson, M. E.; Talcott, P. A. Eds.; Elsevier: St. Louis, MO, 2006; p 240.
  14. DeClementi, C. Moth repellent toxicosis. Vet. Med. 2005, 24-28.
  15. LaBonde, J. Toxicity in pet avian patients. Semin. Avian Exot. Pet Med. 1995, 4 (1), 23-31.
  16. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Fumigants. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; p 160.
  17. Cotter, L. H. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning from insecticides. N. Y. State J. Med. 1953, 53 (14), 1690-1692.
  18. Miyai, I.; Hirono, N.; Fujita, M.; Kameyama, M. Reversible ataxia following chronic exposure to paradichlorobenzene. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 1988, 51, 453-454.
  19. Campbell, D. M.; Davidson, 19. R. J. L. Toxic haemolytic anaemia in pregnancy due to a pica for paradichlorobenzene. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 1970, 77, 657-659.
  20. Hallowell, M. Acute haemolytic anemia following the ingestion of para-dichlorobenzene. Arch. Dis. Child. 1959, 34, 74-75.
  21. Nalbandian, R. M.; Pearce, J. F. Allergic purpura induced by exposure to p-dichlorobenzene. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1965, 194 (7), 828-829.
  22. Aiso, S.; Arito, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Nagano, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Matsushima, T. Thirteen-week inhalation toxicity of p-dichlorobenzene in mice and rats. J. Occup. Health 2005, 47, 249-260.
  23. Kumar, N.; Dale, L. C.; Wijdicks, E. F. M. Mothball mayhem: relaping toxic leukoencephalopathy due to p-dichlorobenzene neurotoxicity. Ann. Intern. Med. 2009, 150 (5), 362-363.
  24. Feuillet, L.; Stephanie, M.; Spadari, M. Twin girls with neurocutaneous symptoms caused by mothball intoxication. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006, 35 (4), 423-424.
  25. Versonnen, B. J.; Arijs, K.; Verslycke, T.; Lema, W.; Janssen, C. R. In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity and toxicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2003, 22 (2), 329-335.
  26. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1,4-Dichlorobenzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice; U.S. Departmenet of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr319.pdf (accessed Feb 2010), updated Jan 1987.
  27. Butterworth, B. E.; Aylward, L. L.; Hays, S. M. A mechanism-based cancer risk assesment for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2007, 49, 138-148.
  28. Kokel, D.; Li, Y.; Qin, J.; Xue, D. The nongenotoxi carcinogens naphthalene and para-dichlorobenzene suppress apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2006, 2 (6), 38-345.
  29. Aiso, S.; Takeuchi, T.; Arito, H.; Nagano, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Matsushima, T. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity in mice and rats exposed by inhalation to para-dichlorobenzene for two years. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2005, 67 (10), 1019-1029.
  30. Umemura, I.; Takada, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Kamata, E.; Saito, M.; Kurokawa, Y. Sex difference in inhalation toxicity of p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) in rats. Toxicol. Lett. 1990, 52, 209-214.
  31. Dichlorobenzenes. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans; World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 1999; Vol. 73, pp 223-265.
  32. Neeper-Bradley, T.; Kubena, F. Developmental toxicity study of maternally inhaled paradichlorobenzene vapor in CD rats. Unpublished lab project no. 91N0110, 1992, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Company, Inc. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  33. Hayes, W.; Gushow, T.; John, J. para-Dichlorobenzene: inhalation teratology study in rabbits. Unpublished report file no. k-1323-(12), 1982, sumbitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Dow Chemicals USA. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  34. Tyl, R.; Neeper-Bradley, T. Paradichlorobenzene: two-generation reproduction study of inhaled paradichlorobenzene in Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. Unpublished lab project no. 86-81-90606, 1989, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared by Union Carbide Bushy Run Research Center. Revised Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Para-dichlorobenzene, EPA 738-R-07-010; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  35. Yoshida, T.; Andoh, K.; Kosaka, H.; Kumagai, S.; Matsunaga, I.; Akasaka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oda, H.; Fukuhara, M. Inhalation toxicokinetics of p-dichlorobenzene and daily absorption and internal accumulation in chronic low-level exposure to humans. Arch. Toxicol. 2002, 76, 306-315.
  36. Hill, R. H., Jr.; Ashley, D. L.; Head, S. 36. L.; Needham, L. L.; Pirkle, J. L. p-Dichlorobenzene exposure among 1,000 adults in the United States. Arch. Environ. Health 1995, 50 (4), 277-280.
  37. Morita, M.; Ohi, G. Para-dichlorobenzene in human tissue and atmosphere in Tokyo metropolitan area. Environ. Pollut. 1975, 8, 269-273.
  38. Jan, J. Chlorobenzene residues in human fat and milk. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1983, 30, 595-599.
  39. Hawkins, D. R.; Chasseaud, L. F.; Woodhouse, R. N.; Cresswell, D. G. The distribution, excretion, and biotransformation of p-dichloro[14C]benzene in rats after repeated inhalation, oral and subcutanous doses. Xenobiotica 1980, 10 (2), 81-95.
  40. Bomhard, E. M.; Schmidt, U.; Loser, E. Time course of enzyme induction in liver and kidneys and absorption, distribution and elimination of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in rats. Toxicol. 1998, 131, 73-91.
  41. Hissink, A. M.; Dunnewijk, R.; van Ommen, B.; van Bladeren, P. J. Kinetics and Metabolism of 1,4-Dichlorobenzene in Male Wistar Rats: No Evidence for Quinone Metabolites. Chem. Biol. Interact. 1997, 103, 17-33.
  42. Klos, C.; Dekant, W. Comparative Metabolism of the Renal Carcinogen 1,4-Dichlorobenzene in Rat: Identification and Quantitation of Novel Metabolites. Xenobiotica 1994, 24, 965-976.
  43. Ashley, D. L.; Bonin, M. A.; Cardinali, F. L.; McCraw, J. M.; Holler, J. S.; Needham, L. L.; Patterson, D. G., Jr. Determining volatile organic compounds in human blood from a large sample population using purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 1992, 64, 1021-1029.
  44. Hill, R. H., Jr.; Shealy, D. B.; Head, S. L.; Williams, C. C.; Bailey, S. L.; Gregg, M.; Baker, S. E.; Needham, L. L. Determination of pesticide metabolites in human urine using an isotope dilution technique and tandem mass spectrometry. J. Anal. Toxicol. 1995, 19, 323-329.
  45. Yoshida, T.; Andoh, K.; Fukuhara, M. Urinary 2,5-dichlorophenol as a biological index for p-dichlorobenzene exposure in the general population. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2002, 43, 481-485.
  46. Fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals; Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Washington, DC, 2009; pp 1, 461-463.
  47. Sexton, K.; Adgate, J. L.; Church, T. R.; Ashley, D. L.; Needham, L. L.; Ramachandran, G.; Fredrickson, A. L.; Ryan, A. D. Children's exposure to volatile organic compounds as determined by longitudinal measurements in blood. Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113 (3), 342-349.
  48. Hill, R. H., Jr.; To, T.; Holler, J. S.; Fast, D. M.; Smith, S. J.; Needham, L. L.; Binder, S. Residues of chlorinated phenols and phenoxy acid herbicides in the urine of Arkansas children. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1989, 18, 469-474.
  49. Wang, M-J.; Jones, K. C. Behavior and Fate of Chlorobenzenes in Spiked and Sewage Sludge-Amended Soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994, 28 (11), 1843-1852.
  50. Spain, J. C.; Nishino, S. F., Degradation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by a Pseudomonas sp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1987, 53 (5), 1010-1019.
  51. Schwarzenbach, R. P.; Monar-Kubica, E.; Giger, W.; Wakeham, S. G. Distribution, residence time, and fluxes of tetrachloroethylene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene in Lake Zurich, Switzerland. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1979, 13 (11), 1367-1373.
  52. Howard, P. H. Large Production and Priority Pollutants: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals; Lewis Publishers: Chelsea, MI, 1989; Vol. 1, pp 250-262.
  53. Bouwer, E. J.; McCarty, P. L. Transformations of halogenated organic compounds under denitrification conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1983, 45 (4), 1295-1299.
  54. Bouwer, E. J.; McCarty, P. L. Removal of trace chlorinated organic compounds by activated carbon and fixed-film bacteria. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1982, 16 (12), 836-843.
  55. Oliver, B. G.; Nicol, K. D. Chlorobenzenes in sediments, water, and selected fish from Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1982, 16 (8), 532-536.
  56. Schwarzenbach, R. P.; Giger, W.; 56. Hoehn, E.; Schneider, J. K. Behavior of organic compounds during infiltration of river water to ground water. Field studies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1983, 17, 472-479.
  57. Young, D. R.; Heesen, T. C. DDT, PCB, and chlorinated benzenes in the marine ecosystem off Southern California. Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects; Jolley, R. L.; Hamilton, D. H.; Gorchev, H., Eds.; Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, MI, 1980; pp 267-290.
  58. Atkinson, R. Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions. Chem. Rev. 1985, 85, 69-201.
  59. Ligocki, M. P.; Leuenberger, C.; Pankow, J. F. Trace organic compounds in rain- II. Gas scavenging of neutral organic compounds. Atmos. Environ. 1985, 19 (10), 1609-1617.
  60. Wang, M.-J.; Jones, K. C. Uptake of Chlorobenzenes by Carrots from Spiked and Sewage Sludge-Amended Soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994, 28 (7), 1260-1267.
  61. Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Pan, J.; Qiu, L.; Zhu, Y. Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area. Environ. Int. 2005, 31, 855-860.
  62. Monferran, M. V.; Wunderlin, D. A.; Nimptsch, J.; Pflugmacher, S. Biotransformation and antioxidant resonse in Ceratophyllum demersum experimentally exposed to 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Chemosphere 2007, 68, 2073-2079.
  63. Brown, S. K.; Sim, M. R.; Abramson, M. J.; Gray, C. N. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: A Review. Indoor Air 1994, 4 (2), 123-134.
  64. Kostiainen, R. Volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of normal and sick houses. Atmos. Environ. 1995, 29 (6), 693-702.
  65. Field, R. A.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstone, M. E.; Lester, J. N.; Perry, R. Indoor/outdoor interactions during an air pollution event in Central London. Environ. Technol. 1992, 13 (4), 391 - 408.
  66. Shinohara, N.; Ono, K.; Gamo, M. p-Dichlorobenzene emission rates from moth repellents and leakage rates from cloth storage cases. Indoor Air 2008, 18, 63-71.
  67. De Coensel, N.; Desmet, K.; Sandra, P.; Gorecki, T. Domestic sampling: exposure assessment to moth repellent products using ultrasonic extraction and capillary GC-MS. Chemosphere 2008, 71, 711-716.
  68. Total Diet Study Market Baskets 1991-3 through 2003-4; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Safety: College Park, MD, 2008; pp i, 51-52.
  69. Wang, M-J.; Jones, K. C. Occurrence of chlorobenzenes in nine United Kingdom retail vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1994, 42 (10), 2322-2328.
  70. Oliver, B. G.; Nicol, K. D. Chlorobenzenes in sediments, water, and selected fish from Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 16 (8), 532-536.
  71. Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Chiou, C. T.; Brinton, T. I.; Barber, L. B.; Demcheck, D. K.; Demas, C. R. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: a field study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 22 (7), 772-778.
  72. Chung, H. Y. Volatile Components in Crabmeats of Charybdis feriatus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47 (6), 2280-2287.
  73. Calamari, D.; Galassi, S.; Setti, F.; Vighi, M. Toxicity of selected chlorobenzenes to aquatic organisms. Chemosphere 1983, 12 (2), 253-262.
  74. Heitmuller, P. T.; Hollister, T. A.; Parrish, P. R. Acute toxicity of 54 industrial chemicals to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1981, 27 (1), 596-604.
  75. Buccafusco, R. J.; Ells, 75. S. J.; LeBlanc, G. A. Acute toxicity of priority pollutants to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1981, 26, 446-452.
  76. McPherson, C. A.; Tang, A.; Chapman, P. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gormican, S. J. Toxicity of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in sediments to juvenile polychaete worms. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2002, 44, 1405-1414.
  77. Chapman, P. M.; Paine, M. D.; Arthur, A. D.; Taylor, L. A. A triad study of sediment quality associated with a major, relatively untreated marine sewage discharge. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1996, 32 (1), 47-64.
  78. Mortimer, M. R.; Connell, D. W., Critical internal and aqueous lethal concentrations of chlorobenzenes with the crab Portunus pelagicus (L). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 1994, 28 (3), 298-312.
  79. Mortimer, M. R.; Connell, D. W. Effect of exposure to chlorobenzenes on growth rates of the crab Portunus pelagicus (L). Environ. Sci. Technol. 1995, 29 (8), 1881-1886.
  80. Wong, P. T. S.; Chau, Y. K.; Rhamey, J. S.; Docker, M. Relationship between water solubility of chlorobenzenes and their effects on a freshwater green alga. Chemosphere 1984, 13 (9), 991-996.
  81. CDC. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: p-Dichlorobenzene; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0190.html (accessed April 2010), updated Feb 2009.
  82. ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs, Based on the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices; American Conference of Governmental Hygienists Worldwide: Cincinnati, OH, 2008; pp 24, 42.
  83. Basic Information about p-dichlorobenzene in drinking water; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Contaminants. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/basicinformation/p-dichlorobenzene.html (accessed April 2010), updated March 2010.
Facebook Twitter Youtube