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Zinc Phosphide/Phosphine References

Zinc Phosphide/Phosphine:

  1. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Production Council: Hampshire, UK, 2006.
  2. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 1-25.
  3. RED Facts: Aluminum and Magnesium Phosphide; EPA-738-F-98-015; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.
  4. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria No. 73 - Phosphine and Selected Metal Phosphides; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1988.
  5. Burgess, J. L. Phosphine exposure from a methamphetamine laboratory investigation. Clin. Toxicol. 2001, 39 (2), 165-168.
  6. Garry, V. F.; Lyubimov, A. V. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology - Phosphine, 2nd ed.; Krieger, R. I. Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2001; Vol. 2, pp 1861-1866.
  7. Devai, I.; Felfoldy, L.; Wittner, I.; Plosz, S. Detection of phosphine: new aspects of the phosphorus cycle in the hydrosphere. Nature 1988, 333, 343-345.
  8. Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), Phosphine; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB (accessed Dec 2008), updated June 2007.
  9. Albretsen, J. C. Zinc Phosphide. Clinical Veterinary Toxocology; Plumlee, K. H. Ed.; Mosby: Saint Louis, MO, 2004; pp 456-459.
  10. Krieger, R. I. Zinc Phosphide. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology - Agents, 2nd ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2001; Vol. 2, pp 1365-1367.
  11. Knight, M. W. Zinc Phosphide. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Peterson, M. E.; Talcott, P. A. Eds.; Elsevier Saunders: Saint Louis, MO, 2006; pp 1101-1118.
  12. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Inorganic Rodenticides. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 173-174, 160.
  13. Mehrpour, O.; Alfred, S.; Shadnia, S.; Keyler, D. E.; Soltaninejad, K.; Chalaki, N.; Sedaghat, M. Hyperglycemia in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning as a potential prognostic factor. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2008, 27, 591-595.
  14. Proudfoot, A. T. Aluminum and zinc phosphide poisoning. Clin. Toxicol. 2009, 47, 89-100.
  15. Hsu, C.-H.; Quistad, G. B.; Casida, J. E. Phosphine-induced oxidative stress in hepa 1c1c7 cells. Toxicol. Sci. 1998, 46, 204-210.
  16. Gupta, R. C. Non-anticoagulant rodenticides. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles; Academic Press: New York, NY, 2007; pp 557-559.
  17. Johnson, H. D.; Voss, E. Toxicological studies of zinc phosphide. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1952, 41 (9), 468-472.
  18. Guale, F. G.; Stair, E. L.; Johnson, B. W.; Edwards, W. C. Laboratory diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 1994, 36 (6), 517-519.
  19. Johnson, G. D.; Fagerstone, K. A. Primary and secondary hazards of zinc phosphide to nontarget wildlife- a review of the literature; DWRC Research Report Number 11-55-005; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994; pp 7-13, 19-21.
  20. Ashton, A. D.; Jackson, W. B. Acute oral LD50 testing with zinc phosphide (4966-78-C): preliminary draft. Unpublished Study no. 935-28, 1981, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Hooker Chemical & Plastics Corporation, Niagra Falls, NY, CDL 245763-C, prepared by Bowling Green State University Center for Environmental Research and Services. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.
  21. Krishnakumari, M. K.; Bai, M. K.; Majumder, S. K. Toxicity and rodenticidal potency of zinc phosphide. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1980, 25, 153-159.
  22. Piccirillo, V. J. Final report: acute dermal toxicity study in rabbits. Unpublished Study no. 6704-78, project no. 419-134, 1977, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, CDL 229306-D, prepared by Hazelton Laboratories America, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.
  23. Newton, P. E.; Schroeder, R. E. Inhalation toxicity of phosphine in the rat: acute, subchronic, and developmental. Inhal. Toxicol. 1993, 5 (2), 223-239.
  24. Mittra, S.; Peshin, S. S.; Lall, S. B. Cholinesterase inhibition by aluminum phosphide poisoning in rats and effects of atropine and pralidoxime chloride. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2001, 22 (1), 37-39.
  25. Lall, S. B.; Peshin, S. S.; Mitra, S. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2000, 38, 95-97.
  26. Stephenson, J. B. P., Zinc phosphide poisoning. Arch. Environ. Health 1967, 15, 83-88.
  27. Mehrpour, O. Comment on Aluminum and zinc phosphide poisoning. Clin. Toxicol. 2009, 47 (8), 838-839.
  28. Duenas, A.; Perez-Castrillon, J. L.; Cobos, M. A.; Herreros, V. Treatment of the cardiovascular manifestations of phosphine poisoning with trimetazidine, a new antiischemic drug. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 1999, 17 (2), 219-220.
  29. Sudakin, D. L. Occupational exposure to aluminum phosphide and phosphine gas? A suspected case report and review of the literature. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2005, 24 (1), 27-33.
  30. Newton, P. E.; Hilaski, R. J.; Banas, D. A.; Wilson, N. H.; Busey, W. M.; Shaheen, D. G. A 2-year inhalation study of phosphine in rats. Inhal. Toxicol. 1999, 11, 693-708.
  31. Barbosa, A.; Rosinova, E.; Dempsey, J.; Bonin, A. M. Determination of genotoxic and other effects in mice following short term repeated-dose and subchronic exposure to phosphine. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 1994, 24, 81-88.
  32. Hill, E. F.; Carpenter, J. W. Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning. J. Wildl. Manage. 1982, 46 (3), 678-685.
  33. Bell, H. B.; Dimmick, R. W. Hazards to predators feeding on prairie voles killed with zinc phosphide. J. Wildl. Manage. 1975, 39 (4), 816-819.
  34. Garry, V. F.; Griffith, J.; Danzl, T. J.; Nelson, R. L.; Whorton, E. B.; Krueger, L. A.; Cervenka, J. Human genotoxicity: pesticide applicators and phosphine. Science 1989, 246 (4927), 251-255.
  35. Barbosa, A.; Bonin, A. M. Evaluation of phosphine genotoxicity at occupational levels of exposure in New South Wales, Australia. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1994, 51, 700-705.
  36. Tucker, J. D.; Moore, D. H., II; Ramsey, M. J.; Kato, P.; Langlois, R. G.; Burroughs, B.; Long, L.; Garry, V. F. Multi-endpoint biological monitoring of phosphine workers. Mutat. Res. 2003, 536, 7-14.
  37. Garry, V. F.; Tarone, R.; Long, L.; Griffith, J.; Kelly, J. T.; Burroughs, B. Pesticide appliers with mixed pesticide exposure: G-banded analysis and possible relationship to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1996, 5, 11-16.
  38. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Al & Mg Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-017; U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998, pp 23-24.
  39. Henwood, S. Developmental toxicity study with zinc phosphide in rats: final report. Unpublished Report no. HWI 6451-100 QA-272, 1994, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Hazelton Wisconsin, Inc. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; p 7.
  40. Anger, F.; Paysant, F.; Brousse, F.; Le Normand, I.; Develay, P.; Gaillard, Y.; Baert, A.; Le Gueut, M. A.; Pepin, G.; Anger, J. P. Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2000, 24, 90-92.
  41. Musshoff, F.; Preuss, J.; Lignitz, E.; Madea, B. A gas chromatographic analysis of phosphine in biological material in a case of suicide. Forensic Sci. Int. 2008, 177, e35-e38.
  42. Raina, A.; Shrivastava, H. C.; Dogra, T. D. Validation of qualitative test for phosphine gas in human tissues. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2003, 41, 909-911.
  43. Hilton, H. W.; Robison, W. H. Fate of zinc phosphide and phosphine in the soil-water environment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1972, 20 (6), 1209-1213.
  44. Koehler, A. E.; Tobin, M. E.; Goodall, M. J.; Sugihara, R. T. Weatherability and acceptance of selected commercial zinc phosphide rodent baits. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 1996, 40, 35-50.
  45. Tickes, B. R. Zinc phosphide in subterranean burrow systems. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1985, 34, 557-559.
  46. Robison, W. H.; Hilton, H. W., Gas chromatography of phosphine derived from zinc phosphide in sugarcane. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1971, 19 (5), 875-878.
  47. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2007.
  48. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2008.
  49. Zinc Phosphide; Tolerance for Residues. Code of Federal Regulations, Section 180.284, Title 40, 2009.
  50. Matschke, G. H.; Higgins, W. H. Adult bobwhite quail LD50 and 95 percent confidence limits. Unpublished Report no. 6704-78, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, CDL 233244-A. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 24-25.
  51. Matschke, G. H.; Higgins, W. H. Adult bobwhite quail LD50 and 95 percent confidence limits. Unpublished Report no. 6704-78, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, CDL 233243-A. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 24-25.
  52. Matschke, G. H. A zinc phosphide dietary LC50 study against bobwhite quail. Unpublished Report no. 6704-78, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, CDL 233339-A. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 24-25.
  53. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A zinc phosphide dietary LC50 study against bobwhite quail and mallard ducks. Unpublished Report no. 6704-78, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, CDL 230884-A. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Zinc Phosphide; EPA 738-R-98- 006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998; pp 24-25.
  54. Glahn, J. F.; Lamper, L. D. Hazards to geese from exposure to zinc phosphide rodenticide baits. Calif. Fish Game 1983, 69 (2), 105-114.
  55. Robertson, A.; Campbell, J. G.; Graves, D. N. Experimental zinc phosphide poisoning in fowls. J. Comp. Pathol. Ther. 1945, 55, 290-300.
  56. CDC. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Phosphine; U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. http://www.cdc.gov/Niosh/idlh/7803512.html (accessed Dec 2009), updated Sept 2005.
  57. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs): Zinc Phosphide Results; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/rest126.htm (accessed Dec 2009), updated Sept 2009.
  58. CDC. Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) Phosphine; U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. http://www.cdc.gov/Niosh/idlh/7803512.html (accessed Dec 2009), updated Aug 1996.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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