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Imidacloprid References

Imidacloprid:

  1. Wismer, T. Novel Insecticides. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Plumlee, K. H., Ed.; Mosby: St. Louis, MO, 2004; pp 184-185.
  2. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Surry, England, 2006; pp 598-599.
  3. Costa, L. G. Toxic Effects of Pesticides. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 7th ed.; Klaassen, C. D., Ed.; McGraw Hill: New York, NY, 2008; pp 907, 922-930.
  4. Copping, L. G. The Biopesticide Manual, 2nd ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Surrey, England, 2001; pp 202-203.
  5. Ware, G. W.; Whitacre, D. M. The Pesticide Book; MeisterPro Information Resources: Willoughby, OH, 2004; pp 70-71.
  6. Hovda, L. R.; Hooser, S. B. Toxicology of newer pesticides for use in dogs and cats. Vet. Clin. Small Anim. 2002, 32, 455-467.
  7. Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), Imidacloprid; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~rEOnhW:1 (accessed October 2008), updated April 2006.
  8. Oliver, D. P.; Kookana, R. S.; Quintana, B. Sorption of Pesticides in Tropical and Temperate Soils from Australia and the Philippines. J. Ag. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 6420-6425.
  9. Oi, M., Time-Dependent Sorption of Imidacloprid in Two Different Soils. J. Ag. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 327-332.
  10. Fossen, M. Environmental Fate of Imidiacloprid; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring: Sacramento, CA, 2006.
  11. Buckingham, S. D.; Lapied, B.; Corronc, H. L.; Grolleau, F.; Sattelle, D. B. Imidacloprid Actions on Insect Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptors. J. Exp. Biol. 1997, 200, 2685-2692.
  12. Matsuda, K.; Sattelle, D. B. Mechanism of Selective Actions of Neonicotinoids on Insect Acetylcholine Receptors. New Discoveries in Agrochemicals: American Chemical Society Symposium Series; Clark, J. M.; Ohkawa, H., III, Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2005; pp 172-183.
  13. Schroeder, M. E.; Flattum, R. F. The Mode of Action and Neurotoxic Properties of the Nitroethylene Heterocycle Insecticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1984, 22, 148-160.
  14. Sheets, L. P. Imidacloprid: A Neonicotinid Insecticide. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Krieger, R. I., Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2001; Vol. 2, Chapter 54, pp 1123-1130.
  15. Tomizawa, M.; Casida, J. E., Minor structural changes in nicotinic insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1999, 127 (1), 115-122.
  16. Matsuda, K.; Buckingham, S. D.; Freeman, J. C.; Squire, M. D.; Baylis, H. A.; Sattelle, D. B. Effects of the alpha subunit on imidacloprid sensitivity of recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1998, 123, 518-524.
  17. Tomizawa, M.; Casida, J. E. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Toxicology: Mechanisms of Selective Action. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2005, 45, 247-268.
  18. Label Review Manual; U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-07.pdf (accessed June 2009), updated Aug 2007.
  19. WHO. Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization. http://www.inchem.org/jmpr/jmprmono/2001pr07.htm (accessed Oct 2008), updated Feb 2004.
  20. Thyssen, J.; Machemer, L. Imidacloprid: Toxicology and Metabolism. Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor; Yamamoto, I.; Casida, J. E., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Tokyo, 1999; Chapter 9, pp 213-222.
  21. Sheets, L. P. The Neonicotinoid Insecticides. Handbook of Neurotoxicology; Massaro, E. J., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2002; Vol. 1, Chapter 6, pp 79-87.
  22. Wu, I.; Lin, J.; Cheng, E. Acute Poisoning with the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid in N-methyl Pyrrolidone. Clin. Toxicol. 2001, 39 (6), 617-621.
  23. Shadnia, S. Fatal intoxication with imidacloprid insecticide. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2007, 26, 634.e1-634.e4.
  24. Deepu, D.; George, I. A.; Peter, J. V. Toxicology of the newer neonicotinoid insecticides: Imidacloprid poisoning in a human. Clin. Toxicol. 2007, 45, 485-486.
  25. Huang, N.; Lin, S.; Chou, C.; Hung, Y.; Chung, H.; Huang, S. Fatal ventricular fibrillation in a patient with acute imidacloprid poisoning. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2006, 24 (7), 883-885.
  26. Agarwal, R. Severe neuropsychiatric manifestations and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with imidacloprid poisoning. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2008, 25, 844-856.
  27. Eiben, R.; Rinke, M. NTN 33893: Subchronic toxicity study on Wistar-rats (administration in the feed for 96 days). Unpublished Report no. 18187, 1989, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland,1989.
  28. Pauluhn, J. NTN 33893: Subacute inhalation toxicity study on the rat according to OECD Guideline No. 412. Unpublished Report no. 18199, 1988, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1988.
  29. Flucke, W. NTN 33893: Tech.-study for subacute dermal toxicity in the rabbit. Unpublished report no. 19152, 1990, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Progamme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1990.
  30. Allen, T. R.; Frei, T.; Leutkemeier, H.; Vogel, O.; Biedermann, K.; Wilson, J. A 52-week oral toxicity (feeding) study with NTN 33893 technical in the dog. Unpublished Report no. R 4856, 1989, amendment no. R 4856A, 1992, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1989.
  31. Imidacloprid: Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Fed. Regist. October 12, 2005, 70 (196), 59268-59276.
  32. Draft list of initial pesticide active ingredients and pesticide inerts to be considered for screening under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Fed. Regist. June 18, 2007, 72 (116), 33486-33503.
  33. Raghavan, M.; Knapp, D. W.; Dawson, M. H.; Bonney, P. L.; Glickman, L. T. Topical flea and tick pesticides and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish terriers. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2004, 225 (3), 389-394.
  34. Becker, H.; Vogel, W.; Terrier, C. Embryotoxicity study (including teratogenicity) with NTN 33893 technical in the rat. Unpublished Report no. R 4582, 1988, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1988a.
  35. Becker, H.; Vogel, W.; Terrier, C. Embryotoxicity study (including teratogenicity) with NTN 33893 technical in the rabbit. Unpublished Report no. R 4583, 1988, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland,1988b.
  36. Suter, P.; Vogel, W.; Wilson, T.; Terrier, C. Multiple-generation reproduction study with NTN 33893 technical in rats. Unpublished Report no. R5097, 1990, amendment report no. R5097A, 1990, and amendment report no. R5097B, 1992, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1990.
  37. Brunet, J.; Maresca, 37. M.; Fantini, J.; Belzunces, L. P. Human intestinal absorption of imidacloprid with Caco-2 cells as entercyte model. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2004, 194 (1), 1-9.
  38. Klein, O. [14C]-NTN 33893: Investigations on the distribution of the total radioactivity in the rat by whole body autoradiography. Unpublished report no. PF2891, 1987, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1987b.
  39. Klein, O.; Karl, W. Methylene [14C] imidacloprid: metabolism part of the general metabolism study in the rat. Unpublished Report no. PF 3316, 1990, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety: 1990.
  40. Klein, O. [14C]-NTN 33893: Biokinetic part of the 'general metabolism study' in the rat. Unpublished Report no. PF2889, 1987, submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany. INCHEM Toxicological Evaluations: Imidacloprid; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1987a.
  41. Schulz-Jander, D. A.; Casida, J. E. Imidacloprid insecticide metabolism: human cytochrome P450 isozymes differ in selectivity for imidazolidine oxidation versus nitroimine reduction. Toxicol. Lett. 2002, 132 (1), 65-70.
  42. Roberts, T. R.; Hutson, D. H. Imidacloprid. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals - Part 2: Insecticides and Fungicides; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1999; pp 111-120.
  43. Calumpang, S. M. F.; Medina, M. J. B. Applicator Exposure to Imidacloprid while Spraying Mangoes. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1996, 57, 697-704.
  44. Rouchaud, J.; Gustin, F.; Wauters, A. Soil Biodegradation and Leaf Transfer of Insecticide Imidacloprid Applied in Seed Dressing in Sugar Beet Crops. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1994, 53, 344-350.
  45. Liu, W.; Zheng, W.; Ma, Y.; Liu, K. Sorption and Degradation of Imidacloprid in Soil and Water. J. Environ. Sci. Health B 2006, 41, 623-634.
  46. Cox, L.; Koskinen, W. C.; Yen, P. Y. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid and its metabolites in soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997, 45, 1468-1472.
  47. Flores-Cespedes, F.; Gonzales-Pradas, E.; Fernandez-Perez, M.; Villafranca-Sanchez, M.; Socias-Viciana, M.; Urena-Amate, M. D. Effects of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Sorption and Mobility of Imidacloprid in Soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2002, 31, 880- 888.
  48. Rouchaud, J.; Gustin, F.; Wauters, A. Imidacloprid Insecticide Soil Metabolism in Sugar Beet Field Crops. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1996, 56, 29-36.
  49. Sarkar, M. A.; Roy, S.; Chowdhury, A. Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in different soils of west Bengal. Pest Manag. Sci. 2001, 57, 598-602.
  50. Zheng, W.; Liu, W. Kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of imidacloprid. Pestic. Sci. 1999, 55, 482-485.
  51. Gupta, S.; Gajbhiye, V. T.; Agnihotri, N. P. Leaching Behavior of Imidacloprid Formulations in Soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2002, 68, 502-508.
  52. Westwood, F.; Bean, K. M.; Dewar, A. M.; Bromilow, R. H.; Chamberlain, K. Movement and Persistence of [14C] Imidacloprid in Sugar-Beet Plants Following Application to Pelleted Sugar-Beet Seed. Pestic. Sci. 1998, 52, 97-103.
  53. Alsayeda, H.; Pascal-Lorber, S.; Nallanthigal, C.; Debrauwer, L.; Laurent, F. Transfer of the insecticide [14C] imidacloprid from soil to tomato plants. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2008, 6, 229-234.
  54. Mukherjee, I.; Gopal, M. Environmental b 54. ehaviour and translocation of imidacloprid in eggplant, cabbage, and mustard. Pest Manag. Sci. 2000, 56, 932-936.
  55. Nauen, R.; Tiejen, K.; Wagner, K.; Elbert, A. Efficacy of Plant Metabolites of Imidacloprid against Myzuz persicae and Aphid gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae). Pestic. Sci. 1998, 52, 53-57.
  56. Craig, M. S.; Gupta, R. C.; Candery, T. D.; Britton, D. A. Human Exposure to Imidacloprid from Dogs Treated with Advantage. Toxicol. Mech. Methods 2005, 15, 287-291.
  57. Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Results and Discussion FY 2006; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods: Washington, DC, 2006.
  58. Pestana, J. L. T.; Loureiro, S.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M. Pesticide exposure and inducible antipredator responses in the zooplankton grazer, Daphnia magna Straus. Chemosphere 2010, 78 (3), 241-248.
  59. Schmuck, R.; Schoning, R.; Stork, A.; Schramel, O. Risk posed to honeybees (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera) by an imidacloprid seed dressing of sunflowers. Pest Manag. Sci. 2001, 57, 225-238.
  60. Suchail, S.; Guez, D.; Belzunces, L. P. Discrepancy between Acute and Chronic Toxicity Induced by Imidacloprid and its Metabolites in Apis mellifera. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2001, 20 (11), 2482-2486.
  61. Decourtye, A.; Lacassie, E.; Phan-Delegue, M. Learning performance of honeybees (Aphis mellifera L) are differentially affected by imidacloprid according to the season. Pest Manag. Sci. 2003, 59, 269-278.
  62. Chauzat, M.-P.; Faucon, J.-P.; Martel, A.-C.; Lachaize, J.; Cougoule, N.; Aubert, M. A survey of pesticide residues in pollen load collected by honey bees in France. J. Econ. Entomol. 2006, 99, (2), 253-262.
  63. Tasei, J.-N.; Lerin, J.; Ripault, G. Sub-lethal effects of imidacloprid on bumblebees, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) during a laboratory feeding test. Pest Manag. Sci. 2000, 56, 784-788.
  64. Decourtye, A.; Devillers, J.; Cluzeau, S.; Charreton, M.; Phan-Delegue, M. Effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin on associative learning in honeybees under semi-field and laboratory conditions. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2003, 57, 410-419.
  65. Papachristos, D. P.; Milonas, P. G. Adverse effects of soil applied insecticides on the predatory coccinellid Hippodamia undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol. Control 2008, 47, 77-81.
  66. Rogers, M. A.; Krischik, V. A.; Martin, L. A. Effect of soil application of imidacloprid on survival of adult green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), used for biological control in the greenhouse. Biol. Control 2007, 42, 172-177.
  67. Capowiez, Y.; Bastardie, F.; Costagliola, G. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the burrowing behaviour of two earthworm species: modifications of the 3D burrow systems in artificial cores and consequences on gas diffusion in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2006, 38, 285-293.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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