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d-Phenothrin References

d-Phenothrin:

  1. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  2. Davies, J. H. The Pyrethroids: An Historical Introduction. The Pyrethroid Insecticides, 1st ed.; Leahey, J. P., Ed.; Taylor & Francis: London, England, 1985; pp 1-41.
  3. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Farnham Surrey, UK, 2006; pp 819-820.
  4. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 96; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1990; pp 1-42.
  5. Preliminary Environmental Fate and Effects Assessment Science Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision of D-Phenothrin (SUMITHRIN®); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 2008; pp 1-50, 97.
  6. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Phenothrin; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~VSnikO:1 (accessed Jun 2010), updated Jan 2009.
  7. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  8. Song, J.; Narahashi, T. Modulation of Sodium Channels of Rat Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons by the Pyrethroid Tetramethrin. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1996, 277 (1), 445-453.
  9. Costa, L. G. Toxic Effects of Pesticides. Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 7th ed.; Klaassen, C. D., Ed.; McGraw- Hill Companies: New York, 2008; pp 883-930.
  10. Volmer, P. A. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Plumlee, K. H., Ed.; Mosby, Inc.: St. Louis, MO, 2004; pp 188-192.
  11. Verschoyle, R. D.; Barnes, J. M. Toxicity of Natural and Synthetic Pyrethrins to Rats. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1972, 2 (3), 308-311.
  12. Hansen, S. R. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Peterson, M. E.; Talcott, P. A., Eds.; Elsevier Saunders: St. Louis, MO, 2006; pp 1002-1010.
  13. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Occupational and Residential Exposure Assessment for the Reregistration Elibibility Decision (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007; pp 1-23.
  14. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Other Insecticides, Acaricides, and Repellents. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; EPA 735-R-98-003; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 74-92.
  15. Soderlund, D. M.; Clark, J. M.; Sheets, L. P.; Mullin, L. S.; Piccirillo, V. J.; Sargent, D.; Stevens, J. T.; Weiner, M. L. Mechanisms of pyrethroid neurotoxicity: implications for cumulative risk assessment. Toxicology 2002, 171 (1), 3-59.
  16. Cox, R. Chronic Toxicity Study in Dogs with Sumithrin, T.G.: Final Report. Unpublished HLA Study No. 343-173, 1987, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc. 408 p. EPA MRID 40276401. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  17. Kenny, T.; Coombs, D.; Hardy, C. Sumithrin T.G.: 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study in the Rat (ET-91-0122) (Amended Version). Unpublished Lab Project No. SMO/314/89644, 1989, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Huntingdon Research Centre Ltd. 273 p. EPA MRID 41289201. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  18. Cox, R. 21-Day Dermal Toxicity Study in Rats with Sumithrin T.G.: Final Report. Unpublished HLA Study No. 343-218, 1989, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc. 156 p. EPA MRID 41009710. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  19. Yamada, T.; Ueda, S.; Yoshioka, K.; Kawamura, S.; Seki, T.; Okuno, Y.; Mikami, N. Lack of estrogenic or (anti-)androgenic effects of d-phenothrin in the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays. Toxicology 2003, 186 (3), 227-239.
  20. Amyes, S. Sumithrin: Oncogenicity and Toxicity Study in Mice (ET-71-0109). Unpublished Laboratory Project ID 86/SUM007/166, 1987, submitted to U.S Environmental Protection Agency, by Life Science Research. EPA MRID 40276402. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63. Tesh, J.; Willoughby, C.; Fowler, J. Sumithrin: Effects upon Reproductive P 21. erformance of Rats Treated Continuously throughout Two Successive Generations: (ET-61-0101). Unpublished Laboratory Project ID 85/SUM009/331, 1986, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Life Science Research. EPA MRID 40276404. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  21. Tesh, J.; Willoughby, C.; Fowler, J. Sumithrin: Effects upon Reproductive P 21. erformance of Rats Treated Continuously throughout Two Successive Generations: (ET-61-0101). Unpublished Laboratory Project ID 85/SUM009/331, 1986, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Life Science Research. EPA MRID 40276404. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  22. Nemec, M. A Teratology Study in Rabbits with Sumithrin: Final Report. Unpublished Project No. WIL-118003, 1989, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by WIL Research Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 41230003. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  23. Tesh, J.; Willoughby, C.; Lambert, E. Sumithrin: Effects of Oral Administration upon Pregnancy in the Rat: 2. Unpublished Report No. 83/SUM005/084, 1983, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Life Science Research. EPA MRID 47452201. d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®) HED Risk Assessment for Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008; pp 1-63.
  24. Ladd, R.; Smith, P. S.; Jenkins, D. H.; Kennedy, G. L., Jr; Kinoshita, F. K.; Keplinger, M. L. Teratogenic study with S-2539 in albino rabbits. Unpublished report, 1976, submitted to WHO by Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., prepared by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Northbrook, IL. Environmental Health Criteria 96; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1990; pp 1-42.
  25. Kaneko, H.; Ohkawa, H.; Miyamoto, J. Absorption and Metabolism of Dermally Applied Phenothrin in Rats. J. Pesticide Sci. 1981, 6, 169-182.
  26. Miyamoto, J.; Suzuki, T.; Nakae, C. Metabolism of Phenothrin or 3-Phenoxybenzyl d-trans-Chrysanthemumate in Mammals. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1974, 4, 439-450.
  27. Leng, G.; Gries, W., Simultaneous Determination of Pyrethroid and Pyrethrin Metabolites in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography- High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. J. Chromatogr., B 2005, 814, 285-294.
  28. Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service: Atlanta, 2003.
  29. Ruzo, L. O.; Smith, I. H.; Casida, J. E. Pyrethroid Photochemistry: Photooxidation Reactions of the Chrysanthemates Phenothrin and Tetramethrin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1982, 30, 110-115.
  30. Nambu, K.; Ohkawa, H.; Miyamoto, J. Metabolic Fate of Phenothrin in Plants and Soils. J. Pestic. Sci. 1980, 5, 177-197.
  31. Hatzenbeler, C. J. Anaerobic aquatic soil metabolism of [benzyl-14C]-d-transphenothrin. Unpublished Document no. 7413-97-0252- EF-001, 1999, submittted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, prepared by Environmental and Metabolic Fate 107 Ricerca, Inc., Painesville, OH. EPA MRID 44865901. Preliminary Environmental Fate and Effects Assessment Science Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision of D-Phenothrin (SUMITHRIN®); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 2008; pp 1-50, 97.
  32. Matsuda, T.; Mikami, N.; Takahaski, N.; Yamada, H. Hydrolysis and photolysis of d-trans-phenothrin in aqueous media (preliminary study). Unpublished SCC Project/Report No. EM-90-0018, 1989, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd., Osaka, Japan, prepared by Biochemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd., Hyogo, Japan. EPA MRID 41898805. Preliminary Environmental Fate and Effects Assessment Science Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision of D-Phenothrin (SUMITHRIN®); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 2008; pp 1-50, 97.
  33. Matoba, Y.; Takimoto, Y.; Kato, T. Indoor Behavior and Risk Assessment Following Residual Spraying of d-Phenothrin and d-Tetramethrin. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. 1998, 59, 191-199.
  34. d-Phenothrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Fed. Reg. 2009, 74 (129), 32437-32443.
  35. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2009; United State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC.
  36. Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring (2000-2008); U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Washington, D.C, 2008.
  37. Fink, R.; Beavers, J.; Grimes, J.; Acute Oral LD50- Bobwhite Quail: Sumithrin. Unpublished Project no. CDL:238275-D, 1978, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by McLaughlin Gormley King Co., Minneapolis, MN, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. and Washington College. EPA MRID 121277. Preliminary Environmental Fate and Effects Assessment Science Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision of D-Phenothrin (SUMITHRIN®); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 2008; pp 1-50, 97.
  38. Bowman, J., Bowman, J. Acute Flow-through Toxicity of Sumithrin to Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Unpubished Project ID 37083, 1988, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. 291 p. EPA MRID 40908308. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  39. Sousa, J. Sumithrin--Early Life-Stage Toxicity Test with Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Final Report. Unpublished Lab Project no. SLI 98-37290, 1998, submitted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Sumitomo Chemical Company. 101p. EPA MRID 44587002. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  40. Graves, W.; Swigert, J. A 96-Hour Flow-Through Acute Toxicity Test with the Saltwater Mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) Sumithrin: Final Report. Unpublished Lab Project no. 166A-109, 1994, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agenvy, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. 38 p. EPA MRID 44388903. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  41. Graves, W.; Swigert, J. A 96-Hour Flow-Through Acute Toxicity Test with the Inland Silverside (Menidia beryllina) Sumithrin Technical Grade: Final Report. Unpublished Lab Project no. 166A-112, 1995, submitted to U.S Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. 43 p. EPA MRID 44388902. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  42. Graves, W.; Swigert, J. Sumithrin: A 48-Hour Flow-Through Acute Toxicity Test with the Cladoceran (Daphnia magna): Final Report. Unpublished Lab Project no. 166A-111, 1994, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection, prepared by Wildlife International Ltd. 43 p. EPA MRID 44407901. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  43. Putt, A. Sumithrin--The Chronic Toxicity to Daphnia magna Under Flow-Through Conditions: Final Report. Unpublished Lab Project no. 98-2-7242: 13048.1097.6156.130, 2006, submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Springborn Laboratories. 102 p. EPA MRID 44587003. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) d-Phenothrin; EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0140; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  44. Paul, E. A.; Simonin, H. A. Toxicity of Three Mosquito Insecticides to Crayfish. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2006, 76, 614-621.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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