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Deltamethrin References


  1. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 97 - Deltamethrin; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1990; pp 1-133.
  2. Davies, J. H. The Pyrethroids: An Historical Introduction. The Pyrethroid Insecticides, 1st ed.; Leahey, J. P., Ed.; Taylor & Francis Ltd: London, 1985; pp 1-41.
  3. Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. http://atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp155.html (accessed Jan 2009), updated Apr 2004.
  4. Data Sheet on Pesticides No. 50: Deltamethrin; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization. http://www.inchem.org/documents/pds/pds/pest50_e.htm (accessed Jan 2009), updated Apr 2004.
  5. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Farnham, UK, 2006; pp 286-287.
  6. Elliott, M.; Farnham, A. W.; Janes, N. F.; Needham, P. H.; Pulman, D. A. Synthetic insecticide with a new order of activity. Nature 1974, 248, 710-711.
  7. Deltamethrin Summary Document Registration Review: Initial Docket March 2010; U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010.
  8. Hayes Jr., W. J. Pesticides Derived from Plants and Other Organisms. Pesticides Studied in Man, 1st ed.; Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, MD, 1982; pp 75-111.
  9. Environmental Fate Assessment for the Synthetic Pyrethroids; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.
  10. Deltamethrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Fed. Regist. October 27, 2004, 69 (207), 62602-62615.
  11. Pesticide Products. Pest-Bank [CD-ROM] 2007.
  12. Insecticide Chalk; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/illegalproducts/chalk.htm (accessed Jan 2008), updated May 2006.
  13. Joy, R. M. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroid Insecticides. Pesticides and Neurological Diseases, 2nd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1994; pp 292-312.
  14. Burr, S. A.; Ray, D. E. Structure-activity and interaction effects of 14 different pyrethroids on voltage-gated chloride ion channels. Toxicol. Sci. 2004, 77, 341-346.
  15. Ray, D. E.; Fry, J. R. A reassessment of the neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006, 111 (1), 174-193.
  16. Leake, L. D.; Buckley, D. S.; Ford, M. G.; Salt, D. W. Comparative effects of pyrethroids on neurones of target and non-target organisms. Neurotoxicol. 1985, 6 (2), 99-116.
  17. Bradberry, S. M., Cage, S. A., Proudfoot, A. T., Vale, J. A. Poisoning due to Pyrethroids. Toxicol. Rev. 2005, 24 (2), 93-106.
  18. Pesticide Residues in Food 2000 - Deltamethrin; International Programme on Chemical Safety, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2001; pp 79-110.
  19. Notice of Filing of Pesticide Petitions. Fed. Regist. April 30, 1997, 62 (83), 23455-23460.
  20. Soderlund, D. M.; Clark, J. M.; Sheets, L. P.; Mullin, L. S.; Piccirillo, V. J.; Sargent, D.; Stevens, J. T.; Weiner, M. L. Mechanisms of pyrethroid neurotoxicity: implications for cumulative risk assessment. Toxicol. 2002, 171 (1), 3-59.
  21. He, F.; Wang, S.; Liu, L.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, J. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pyrethroid poisoning. Arch. Toxicol. 1989, 63, 54-58.
  22. Madsen, C.; Claesson, M. H.; Röpke, C. Immunotoxicity of the pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin and a-cypermetrin. Toxicol. 1996, 107, 219-227.
  23. Shukla, Y.; Arora, A.; Singh, A. Tumourigenic studies on deltamethrin in Swiss albino mice. Toxicol. 2001, 163, 1-9.
  24. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization: Lyon, France,1991; Vol. 53, p 251.
  25. Schardein, J. L. Developmental toxicity study in New Zealand white rabbits. Unpublished Report No. 3271112. Submitted to the World Health Organization by Hoechst Schering AgrEvo: Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, 1990.
  26. Anadón, A.; Martinez-Larrañaga, M. R.; Fernandez-Cruz, M. L.; Diaz, M. J.; Fernandex, M. C.; Martinez, M. A. Toxicokinetics of deltamethrin and its 4'-HO-metabolite in the rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1996, 141, 8-16.
  27. Roberts, T.; Hutson, D. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals - Part 2: Insecticides and Fungicides, 1st ed.; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1999; pp 638-644.
  28. Heudorf, U.; Angerer, J. Metabolites of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Urine Specimens: Current Exposure in an Urban Population in Germany. Environ. Health Perspect. 2001, 109 (3), 213-217.
  29. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2005; pp 405-415.
  30. Boehncke, A.; Siebers, J.; Nolting, H.G. Investigations of the evaporation of selected pesticides from natural and model surfaces in field and laboratory. Chemosphere 1990, 21 (9), 1109-1124.
  31. Erstfeld, K. M. Environmental fate of synthetic pyrethroids during spray drift and field runoff treatments in aquatic microcosms. Chemosphere 1999, 39 (10), 1737-1769.
  32. Muir, D. C. G.; Rawn, G. P.; Grift, N. P. Fate of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in small ponds: a mass balance study. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1985, 33, 603-609.
  33. Amweg, E. L.; Weston, D. P.; You, J.; Lydy, M. J. Pyrethroid Insecticides and Sediment Toxicity in Urban Creeks from California and Tennessee. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40 (5), 1700-1706.
  34. Holmes, R. W.; Anderson, B. S.; Phillips, B. M.; Hunt, J. W.; Crane, D. B.; Mekebri, A.; Connor, V. Statewide Investigation of the Role of Pyrethroid Pesticides in Sediment Toxicity in California's Urban Waterways. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42 (18), 7003-7009.
  35. Hill, B. D.; Johnson, D. L. Persistence of deltamethrin and its isomers on pasture forage and litter. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1987, 35, 373-378.
  36. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2007.
  37. Akerblom, N.; Arbjork, C.; Hedlund, M.; Goedkoop, W. Deltamethrin toxicity to the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen- Effects of exposure scenario and sediment quality. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2008, 70, 53-60.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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