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Chlorpyrifos References

Chlorpyrifos:

  1. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Chlorpyrifos; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC: 2006.
  2. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Alton, Hampshire, UK, 2006; p 186-187.
  3. Lewis, R. A. Lewis' Dictionary of Toxicology; Lewis Publishers: New York, 1998; pp 681, 1030.
  4. Reregistration Eligibility Science Chapter for Chlorpyrifos Fate and Environmental Risk Assessment Chapter; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.
  5. Smegal, D. C. Human Health Risk Assessment Chlorpyrifos; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000; pp 1-131.
  6. Karanth, S.; Pope, C. Carbosylesterase and A-Esterase Activities during Maturation and Aging: Relationship to the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos and Parathion in Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58, 282-289.
  7. Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service: Atlanta, 1997.
  8. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Organophosphate Insecticides. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.
  9. Blodgett, D. J. Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Peterson, M. E.; Talcott, P. A., Eds.; Elsevier Saunders: St. Louis, 2006; pp 941-947.
  10. Lotti, M.; Moretto, A. Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Polyneuropathy. Toxicol. Rev. 2005, 24 (1), 37-49.
  11. Kamrin, M. A. Pesticide Profiles Toxicity, Environmental Impact, and Fate; Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, 1997; pp 147- 152.
  12. Dam, K.; Seidler, F. J.; Slotkin, T. A., Chlorpyrifos exposure during a critical neonatal period elicits gender-selective deficits in the development of coordination skills and locomotor activity. Dev. Brain Res. 2000, 121, 179-187.
  13. Carr, R. L.; Chambers, H. W.; Guarisco, J. A.; Richardson, J. R.; Tang, J.; Chambers, J. E. Effects of repeated oral postnatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on open-field behavior in juvenile rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2001, 59, 260-267.
  14. Roy, T. S.; Andrews, J. E.; Seidler, 14. F. J.; Slotkin, T. A. Chlorpyrifos elicits mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis in neuroepithelium of cultured rat embryos. Teratology 1998, 58, 62-68.
  15. Whitney, K. D.; Seidler, F. J.; Slotkin, T. A. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: cellular mechanisms. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1995, 134, 53-62.
  16. Crumpton, T. L.; Seidler, F. J.; Slotkin, T. A. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in vivo and in vitro: effects on nuclear transcription factors involved in cell replication and differentiation. Brain Res. 2000, 857, 87-98.
  17. Dam, K.; Garcia, S. J.; Seidler, F. J.; Slotkin, T. A. Neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters synaptic development and neuronal activity in cholinergic and catecholaminergic pathways. Dev. Brain Res. 1999, 16 (1), 9-20.
  18. Ricceri, L., Markina, N., Valanzano, A., Fortuna, S., Cometa, M.F., Meneguz, A., Calamandrei, G. Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos alters reactivity to environmental and social cues in adolescent mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2003, 191, 189-201.
  19. Zheng, Q., Olivier, K., Won, W.K., Pope, C.N. Comparitive Cholinergic Neurotoxicity of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Preweanling and Adult Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 55, 123-132.
  20. Moser, V. C.; Padilla, S. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in the Time Course of Behavioral and Biochemical Effects Produced by Oral Chlorpyrifos in Rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1998, 149, 107-119.
  21. Osweiler, G. D. Toxicology; Williams and Wilkins: Media, PA, 1996; p 235.
  22. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 2005; pp. 349-377.
  23. Nolan, R. J.; Rick. D. L.; Freshour, N. L.; Saunders, J. H. Chlorpyrifos: Pharmacokinetics in Human Volunteers. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1984, 73, 8-15.
  24. Hopper, K.; Aldrich, J.; Haskins, S. C.; The recognition and treatment of the intermediate syndrome of organophosphate poisoning in a dog. J. Vet. Emer. Crit. Care 2003, 13 (1), 42-43.
  25. Moretto, A.; Lotti, M. Poisoning by Organophosphorus Insecticides and Sensory Neuropathy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 1998, 64, 463-468.
  26. Capodicasa, E.; Scapellato, M. L.; Moretto, A.; Caroldi, S.; Lotti, M. Chlorpyrifos-induced delayed polyneuropathy. Arch. Toxicol. 1991, 65 (2), 150-5.
  27. Fikes, J. D.; Zachary, J. F.; Parker, A. J.; Beasley, V. R., Clinical, biochemical, electrophysiologic, and histologic assessment of chlorpyrifos induced delayed neuropathy in the cat. Neurotoxicol. 1992, 13 (3), 663-78.
  28. Thompson, C. M.; Richardson, R. J. Anticholinesterase Insecticides. Pesticide Toxicology and International Regulation; Marrs, T. C.; Ballantyne, B., Eds.; John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, England, 2004; pp 89-127.
  29. Wagner, S. L. Diagnosis and Treatment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Intoxication. Human Health Effects of Pesticides; Keifer, M. C., Ed.; Hanley and Belfus: Philadelphia, 1997; Vol. 12, pp 239-249.
  30. Richardson, R. J., Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos relative to other organophosphorus compounds: a critical review of the literature. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1995, 44 (2), 135-65.
  31. Lotti, M.; Moretto, A.; Zoppellari, R.; Dainese, R.; Rizzuto, N.; Barusco, G. Inhibition of lymphocytic neuropathy target esterase predicts the development of organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy. Arch. Toxicol. 1986, 59 (3), 176-9.
  32. Aiuto, L. A.; Pavlakis, S. G.; Boxer, R. A. Life-threatening organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy in a child after accidental chlorpyrifos ingestion. J. Pediatr. 1993, 122 (4), 658-60.
  33. Yano, B. L.; Young, J. T.; Mattsson, J. L. Lack of carcinogenicity of chlorpyrifos insecticide in a high-dose, 2-year dietary toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 53 (1), 135-144.
  34. Costa, L. G.; Schwab, B. W.; Murphy, S. D. Tolerance to anticholinesterase compounds in mammals. Toxicology 1982, 25 (2- 3), 79-97.
  35. Sultatos, L. G. Mammalian toxicology of organophosphorus pesticides. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1994, 43, 271-289.
  36. Albers, J. W.; Cole, P.; Greenberg, R. S.; Mandel, J. S.; Monson, R. R.; Ross, J. H.; Snodgrass, W. R.; Spurgeon, A.; Gemert, M. V. Analysis of chlorpyrifos exposure and human health: expert panel report. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part B 1999, 2 (4), 301-324.
  37. Albers, J. W.; Berent, S.; Garabrant, D. H.; Giordani, B.; Schweitzer, S. J.; Garrison, R. P.; Richardson, R. J. The Effects of Occupational Exposure to Chlorpyrifos on the Neurologic Examination of Central Nervous System Function: A Prospective Cohort Study. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2004, 46 (4), 367-378.
  38. Coulston, F.; Golberg, L.; Griffin, T. Safety evaluation of DOWCO 179 in human volunteers. Albany Medical College: Albany, NY, 1972. Unpublished study. EPA MRID 95175. Smegal, D. C. Human Health Risk Assessment Chlorpyrifos; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000.
  39. Draft List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts to be Considered for Screening Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/prioritysetting/draftlist.htm (accessed Jan 2008), updated June 2007.
  40. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (Final); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.
  41. Dam, K., Seidler, F.J., and Slotkin, T.A. Chlorpyrifos exposure during a critical neonatal period elicits gender-selective deficiets in the development of coordination skills and locomotor activity. Dev. Brain Res. 2000, 121 (2), 179-187.
  42. Carr, R. T.; Chambers, H.W.; Guarisco, J. A.; Richardson, J. R.; Tang, J.; Chambers, J. E. Effects of Repeated Oral Postnatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos on Open-Field Behavior in Juvenile Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2001, 59, 260-267.
  43. Jett, D. A.; Navoa, R. V.; Beckles, R. A.; McLemore, G. L. Cognitive Function and Cholinergic Neurochemistry in Weanling Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2001, 174 (2), 89-98.
  44. Roy, T. S.; Andrews, J. E.; Seidler, F. J.; Slotkin, T. A. Chloropyrifos Elicits Mitotic Abnormalities and Apoptosis in Neuroepithelium of Cultured Rat Embryos. Teratol. 1998, 58, 62-68.
  45. Eaton, D. L.; Daroff, R. B.; Autrup, H.; Bridges, J.; Buffler, P.; Costa, L. G.; Coyle, J.; McKhann, G.; Mobley, W. C.; Nadel, L.; Neubert, D.; Schulte-Hermann, R.; Spencer, P. S. Review of the Toxicology of Chlorpyrifos With an Emphasis on Human Exposure and Neurodevelopment. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2008, 38 (1 supp 2), 1-125.
  46. Rauh, V. A.; Garfinkle, R.; Perera, F. P.; Anderws, H. F.; Hoepner, L.; Barr, D. B.; Whitehead, R.; Tang, D.; Whyatt, R. W. Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children. Pediatrics 2006, 118, 1845-1859.
  47. Griffin, P.; Mason, H.; Heywood, K.; Cocker, J. Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: a human volunteer study. Occup. Environ. Med. 1999, 56 (1), 10-13.
  48. Costa, L. G., Current issues in organophosphate toxicology. Clinica Chimica Acta 2006, 336, 1-13.
  49. Timchalk, C.; Cambell, J. A.; Lui, G.; Lin, Y.; Kousba, A. A. Development of a Non-invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007, 219, 217-225.
  50. Barr, D. 50. B.; Angerer, J. Potential uses of biomonitoring data: a case study using the organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos and malathion. Environ. Health Perspect. 2006, 114 (11), 1763-1769.
  51. International Chemical Safety Cards - Chlorpyrifos; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0851.html (accessed Dec 2007) updated Oct 2005.
  52. Guidelines for physicians who supervise workers exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, 4th ed.; California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section: Oakland, CA, 2002; pp 6-9.
  53. Timchalk, C.; Busby, A.; Campbell, J. A.; Needham, L. L.; Barr, D. B., Comparative pharmacokinetics of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos and its major metabolites diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in the rat. Toxicology 2007, 237 (1-3), 145-157.
  54. Roberts, T. R.; Hutson, D. H. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals - Part 2: Insecticides and Fungicides; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1999; pp 235-242.
  55. Harnly, M.; McLaughlin, R.; Bradman, A.; Anderson, M.; Gunier, R. Correlating Agricultural Use of Organophosphates with Outdoor Air Concentrations: A Particular Concern for Children. Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113 (9), 1184-1189.
  56. Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), Chlorpyrifos; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB (accessed Apr 2009), updated June 2005.
  57. Aston, L. S.; Seiber, J. N. Fate of Summertime Airborne Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. J. Environ. Qual. 1997, 26, 1483-1492.
  58. Iwata, Y.; O'Neal, J. R.; Barkley, J. H.; Dinoff, T. M.; Dusch, M. E. Chlorpyrifos applied to California citrus: residue levels on foliage and on and in fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1983, 31 (3), 603-10.
  59. Roinestad, K. S.; Louis, J. B.; Rosen, J. D. Determination of Pesticides in Indoor Air and Dust. J. AOAC Int. 1993, 76 (5), 1121- 1125.
  60. Hore, P.; Robson, M.; Freeman, N.; Zhang, J.; Wartenberg, D.; Ozkayna, H.; Tulve, N.; Sheldon, L.; Needham, L.; Barr, D.; Lioy, P. J. Chlorpyrifos Accumulation Patterns for Child-Accessible Surfaces and Objects and Urinary Metabolite by Children for 2 Weeks after Crack-and-Crevice Application. Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113 (2), 211-219.
  61. Morgan, M. K.; Sheldon, L. S.; Croghan, C. W.; Jones, P. A.; Robertson, G. L.; Chuang, J. C.; Wilson, N. K.; Lyu, C. W. Exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in their everyday environments. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 2005, 15 (4), 297-309.
  62. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2008.
  63. Racke, K. D. Environmental Fate of Chlorpyrifos. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1993, 131, 1-150.
  64. 2006 Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, U.S Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.
  65. Barnett, M.; Calvert, G. M. Pesticide-Related Illness and Injury Surveillance, A How-To Guide For State-Based Programs; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH, 2005.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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