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Boric Acid References

Boric Acid:

  1. Boric Acid/Sodium Borate Salts: HED Chapter of the Tolerance Reassessment Elegibility Decision Document (TRED); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Health Effects Division, U.S Government Printing Offices: Washington, DC, 2006.
  2. Draft Toxicological Profile for Boron; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, GA, 2007.
  3. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 204: Boron; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1998.
  4. Toxicological Review of Boron and Compounds in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); U.S Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004.
  5. Reregistration Eligibility Document: Boric acid and its sodium salts; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996.
  6. OMRI Generic Materials List; Organic Materials Review Institute, 2009.
  7. Rainey, C. J.; Nyquist, L. A.; Christensen, R. E.; Strong, P. L.; Culver, B. D.; Coughlin, J. R., Daily Boron Intake from the American Diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1999, 99 (3), 335-340.
  8. Hunt, C. D. Dietary Boron: Evidence for Essentiality and Homeostatic Control in Humans and Animals. Advances in Plant and Animal Boron Nutrition; Xu, F. Ed.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center: Grand Forks, ND, 2007; pp 251-267.
  9. Habes, D.; Morakchi, S.; Aribi, N.; Farine, J.P.; Soltani, N. Soltani Boric acid toxicity to the German cockroach, Blatella germanica: Alterations in midgut structure, and acetocholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 2005, 84 (1),17-24.
  10. Appel, A. G.; Gehret, M. J.; Tanley, M. J. Effects of Moisture on the Toxicity of Inorganic and Organic Insecticidal Dust Formulations to German Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2004, 97 (3), 1009-1016.
  11. Strong, P. L. Boric Acid and Inorganic Borate Pesticides. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Volume 2: Agents, 2nd ed.; Krieger, R. I., Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2001; pp 1429-1437.
  12. Pfeifer, C. C., Hallman, L. F., Gersh, I. Boric acid ointment:A study of possible intoxication in the treatment of burns. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1945, 128, 266-274.
  13. Weir, R. J.; Fisher, R. S. Toxicologic studies on borax and boric acid. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1972, 23 (3), 351-364.
  14. Litovitz, T. L., Klein-Schwartz, W., Oderda, G. M., Schmitz, B. F. Clinical Manifestations of Toxicity in a Series of 784 Boric Acid Ingestions. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 1988, 6, 209-213.
  15. Welch, S. Boric Acid. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology; Plumlee, K. H., Ed.; Mosby, Inc.: St. Louis, MO, 2004; pp 143-145.
  16. Campbell, A.; Chapman, M. Borax. Handbook of Poisoning in Dogs and Cats; Blackwell Science: Oxford, London, 2000; pp 86-89.
  17. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Boric Acic and Borate. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: Other Insecticides, 5th ed.; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 75-76.
  18. Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D. Boric Acid Poisoning: Report of 11 Cases. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 1964, 90, 1018-1023.
  19. Baker, M. D.; Bogema, S. C. Ingestion of Boric Acid by Infants. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 1986, 4 (4), 358-361.
  20. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Boron and Compounds; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/iris/(accessed March 2010), updated Jan 2010.
  21. Linden, C. H.; Hall, A. H.; Kulig, K. W.; Rumack, B. H. Acute Ingestions of Boric Acid. Clin. Toxicol. 1986, 24 (4), 269-279.
  22. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Science Coordination and Policy. http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/regaspects/testorders.htm (accessed March 2010), updated March 2010.
  23. Barranco, W. T.; Eckhert, C. D. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Lett. 2004, 216 (1), 21-29.
  24. Meacham, S. L.; Elwell, K. E.; Ziegler, S.; Carper, S. W. Boric Acid Inhibits Cell Growth in Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines. Advances in Plant and Animal Boron Nutrition; Xu, F., Ed.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center: Grand Forks, ND: 2007; pp 299-306.
  25. Heindel, J. J.; Price, C. J.; Field, E. A.; Marr, M. C.; Myers, C. B.; Morrissey, R. E.; Schwetz, B. A. Developmental Toxicity of Boric Acid in Mice and Rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1992, 18, 266-277.
  26. Heindel, J. J.; Price, C. J.; Schwetz, B. A. The Developmental Toxicity of Boric Acid in Mice, Rats, and Rabbits. Environ. Health Perspect. Supp. 7 1994, 102, 107-112.
  27. Price, C. J.; Strong, P. L.; Marr, M. C.; Myers, C. B.; Murray, F. J., Developmental 27. Toxicity NOAEL and Postnatal Recovery in Rats Fed Boric Acid during Gestation. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1996, 32 (2), 179-193.
  28. Price, C. J.; Marr, M. C.; Myers, C. B.; Seely, J. C.; Heindel, J. J.; Schwetz, B. A. The Developmental Toxicity of Boric Acid in Rabbits. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1996, 34, 176-187.
  29. Fail, P. A.; Chapin, R. E.; Price, C. J.; Heindel, J. J. General, reproductive, developmental, and endocrine toxicity of boronated compounds. Reprod. Toxicol. 1998, 12 (1), 1-18.
  30. Fail, P. A.; George, J. D.; Seely, J. C.; Grizzle, T. B.; Heindel, J. J. Reproductive Toxicity of Boric Acid in Swiss (CD-1) Mice: Assessment Using the Continuous Breeding Protocol. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1991, 17, 225-239.
  31. Pahl, M. V.; Culver, B. D; Strong, P. L.; Murray, F. J.; Vaziri, N. D. The Effect of Pregnancy on Renal Clearance of Boron in Humans: A Study Based on Normal Dietary Intake of Boron. Toxicol. Sci. 2001, 60 (2), 252-256.
  32. Wester, R. C.; Hui, X.; Hartway, T.; Maibach, H. I.; et. al. In Vivo Percutaneous Absorption of Boric Acid, Borax and Disdium Octaborate Tetrahydrate in Humnas Compared to in Vitro Absorption in Human Skin from Infinate and Finite Doses. Toxicol. Sci. 1998, 45, 42-51.
  33. Vignec, A. J.; Ellis, R. Inabsorbability of Boric Acid in Infant Powder. AMA Am. J. Dis. Child. 1954, 88 (1), 72-80.
  34. Culver, B. D.; Shen, P. T.; Taylor, T. H.; Lee-Feldstein, A.; Anton-Culver, H.; Strong, P. L. The Relationship of Blood- and Urine-Boron to Boron Exposure in Borax-Workers and the Usefulness of Urine-Boron as an Exposure Marker. Environ. Health Perspect. Supp. 7 1994, 102, 133-137.
  35. Wilding, J. L.; Smith, W. J.; Yevich, P.; Sicks, M. E.; Ryan, S. G.; Punte, C. L. The Toxicity of Boron Oxide. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 1959, 20 (4), 284-289.
  36. Chapin, R. E.; Ku, W. W. The Reproductive Toxicity of Boric Acid. Environ. Health Perspect. Supp. 7 1994, 102, 87-91.
  37. Ku, W. W.; Chapin, R. E.; Moseman, R. F.; Brink, R. E.; Pierce, K. D.; Adams, K. Y. Tissue disposition of boron in male Fischer rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1991, 111 (1), 145-151.
  38. Chapin, R. E.; Ku, W. W.; Kenney, M. A.; McCoy, H.; Gladen, B.; Wine, R. N.; Wilson, R.; Elwell, M. R. The Effects of Dietary Boron on Bone Strength in Rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1997, 35 (2), 205-215.
  39. Emsley, J. The Elements; Oxford University Press, Inc.: New York, 1989.
  40. Schou, J. S.; Jansen, J. A.; Aggerbeck, B. Human Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Boric Acid. Arch. Toxicol. Supp. 1984, 7, 232-235.
  41. Vaziri, N. D.; Oveisi, F.; Culver, B. D.; Pahl, M. V.; Andersen, M. E.; Strong, P. L.; Murray, F. J. The Effect of Pregnancy on Renal Clearance of Boron in Rats Given Boric Acid Orally. Toxicol. Sci. 2001, 60 (2), 257-263.
  42. Butterwick, L.; de Oude, N.; Raymond, K. Safety assessment of boron in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 1989, 17 (3), 339-371.
  43. Eisler, R. Boron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report; Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: Laural MD, 1990; Vol. 85.
  44. Woods, W. G. An Introduction to Boron: History, Sources, Uses, and Chemistry. Environ. Health Perspect. Supp. 7 1994, 102, 5-11.
  45. Dordas, C.; Brown, P. H. Evidence for channel mediated transport of boric acid in squash (Cucurbita pepo). Plant Soil 2001, 235, 95-103.
  46. Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride), sodium borate and sodium metaborate; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 180.1123, Title 40, 2003.
  47. Smith, G. J.; Anders, V. P. Toxic Effects of Boron on Mallard Reproduction. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1989, 8, 943-950.
  48. Hoffman, D. J.; Camardese, M. B.; Lecaptain, L. J.; Pendleton, G. W. 48. Effects of Boron on Growth and Physiology in Mallard Ducklings. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1990, 9, 335-346.
  49. Zhang, Y. C., Perzanowski, M. S.; Chew, G. L. Sub-lethal exposure of cockroaches to boric acid pesticide contributes to increased Bla g 2 excretion. Allergy 2005, 60, 965-968.
  50. Regulatory Determinations Support Document for Selected Contaminants from the Second Drinking Water Comntaminant Candidate List (CCL2); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.
  51. ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs, Based on the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices; American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Worldwide: Cincinnati, 2008; p 14.
  52. CDC. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Borates; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, 2007; p 30.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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