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Acephate References

Acephate:

  1. Reregistration Elegibility Decision (RED) Acephate; EPA 738-R-01-013; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006; pp 1-87.
  2. Roberts, T. R.; Hutson, D. H. Acephate. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals - Part 2: Insecticides and Fungicides; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1999; pp 201-204.
  3. Pesticide Fact Sheet Acephate; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987; pp 1-10.
  4. Downing, E. Environmental Fate of Acephate; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management: Sacramento, CA, 2000; p 11.
  5. Yen, J-H.; Lin, K-H.; Wang, Y-S. Potential of the Insecticides Acephate and Methamidophos to Contaminate Groundwater. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2000, 45, 79-86.
  6. Davy, M.; Eckel, W. P.; Hammer, C. Risks of Acephate Use to the Federally Listed California Red Legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division: Washington, DC, 2007; p 122.
  7. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Alton, Hampshire, UK, 2006; pp 5-6.
  8. Thomson, W. T. Acephate. Agricultural Chemicals Book I - Insecticides, Acaricides, and Ovicides; Thomson Publications: Fresno, CA, 1989; p 1.
  9. Klaassen, C. D. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2001; p 1236.
  10. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Organophosphate Insecticides. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticidee Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 34-47.
  11. Chuckwudebe, A. C.; Hussain, M. A.; Oloffs, P. C. Hydrolytic and Metabolic Products of Acephate. J. Environ. Sci. Health 1984, B19 (6), 501-522.
  12. Farag, A. T.; Eweidah, M. H.; El-Okazy, A. M. Reproductive toxicology of acephate in male mice. Reprod. Toxicol. 2000, 14, 457-462.
  13. Mahajna, M.; Quistad, G. B.; Casida, J. E. Acephate Insecticide Toxicity: Safety Conferred by Inhibition of the Bioactivating Carboxyamidase by the Metabolite Methamidophos. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1997, 10, 64-69.
  14. Chapman, R. F. The Insects Structure and Function, 4th ed.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1998; p 542.
  15. Smith, D. S.; Treherne, J. E. The Electron Microscopic Localizations of Cholinesterase Activity in the Central Nervous System of an Insect, Periplaneta americana l. J. Cell Biol. 1965, 26, 445-465.
  16. Spassova, D.; White, T.; Singh, A. K. Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, endocrine system and amino acid concentrations in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C 2000, 126, 79-89.
  17. WHO. Pesticide residues in food - 2002: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2003; pp 3-35.
  18. Vyas, N. B.; Kuenzel, W. J.; Hill, E. F.; Romo, G. A.; Komaragiri, M. V. S. Regional Cholinesterase Activity in White-Throated Sparrow Brain is Differentially Affected b y Acephate (Orthene®). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1996, 113C (3), 381-386.
  19. Wilson, B. W.; Henderson, J. D.; Kellner, T. P.; McEuen, S. F.; Griffis, L. C.; Lai, J. C. Acetylcholinesterase and Neuropathy Target Esterase in Chickens Treated with Acephate. Neurotoxicol. 1990, 11, 483-492.
  20. WHO. Pesticide residues in food - 2005: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2005; pp 3-16.
  21. Silveira, R. F.; Cushman. J. R.; Wong, Z. A. Modified Buehler test for the skin sensitization potential of Chevron acephate technical (SX-1102). Unpublished Report no. SOCAL 1840, 1984, submitted to WHO by Tomen Agro, Inc., San Francisco, CA, prepared by Chevron Environmental Health Center, Richmond, CA. EPA MRID 00119085. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Acephate; EPA 738-R-01-013; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.
  22. Narcisse, J. K.; Cavalli, R. D.; Spence, J. A. Eye irritation potential of Orthene technical, Orthene 75S, (CC-2153) and Orthene 7S (CC-2152). Unpublished Report no. SOCAL 273, 1971, submitted to WHO by Tomen Agro, Inc., San Francisco, CA, prepared by Standard Oil Company of California. Pesticide residues in food - 2002: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
  23. Levy, J. E.; Wong Z. A.; MacGregor, J. A. The eye irritation potential of Orthene specialty concentration. Unpublished Report no. SOCAL 1419, 1979, submitted to WHO by Tomen Agro, Inc., San Francisco, CA, prepared by Chevron Environmental Health Center, Richmond, CA. Pesticide residues in food - 2002: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
  24. Rittenhouse, J. R.; Wong, Z. A.; MacGregor, 24. J. A. The acute inhalation toxicity of Orthene speciality concentration. Unpublished Report no. SOCAL 1420, 1979, submitted to WHO by Tomen Agro, Inc., San Francisco, CA, prepared by Chevron Environmental Health Center, Richmond, CA. EPA MRID 00015307. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Acephate; EPA 738-R-01-013; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.
  25. WHO. Pesticide residues in food - 1976: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1976.
  26. Zinkl, J. G.; Roberts, R. B.; Shea, P. J.; Lasmanis, J. Toxicity of Acephate and Methamidophos to Dark-eyed Juncos. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1981, 10, 185-192.
  27. Memorandum: Updated Review of Acephate Incident Reports; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009.
  28. Integrated Risk Information System Acephate; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0354.htm (accessed Dec 2007), updated Oct 1993.
  29. Singh, A. K.; Drewes, L. R. Neurotoxic Effects of Low-Level Chronic Acephate Exposure in Rats. Environ. Res. 1987, 43, 342- 349.
  30. Krieger, R. Cholinesterases. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2001; Vol. 2, p 967-1075.
  31. Joshi, A. K. R. J.; Rajini, P. S. Reversible hyperglycemia in rats following acute exposure to acephate, an organophosphorus insecticide: Role of gluconeogenesis. Toxicology 2009, 257, 40-45.
  32. Kumar, S. Changes in rat brain regions serotoninergic system following acephate poisoning. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 2004, 78, 140-150.
  33. Singh, A. K. Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos and interleukin-1 on corticotropin -releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in and release from the hypothalamus in vitro. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C, 2002, 132, 9-24.
  34. Draft List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts to be Considered for Screening under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Fed. Reg. 2007, 72 (116), 33486-33503.
  35. Rahman, M. F.; Mahboob, M.; Danadevi, K.; Banu, B. S.; Grover, P. Assessment of genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos and acepahte by the comet assay in mice leucocytes. Mutat. Res. 2002, 516, 139-147.
  36. Behera, B. C.; Bhunya, S. P. Studies on the genotoxicity of asataf (acephate), an organophosphate insecticide, in a mammalian in vivo system. Mutat. Res. 1989, 223, 287-293.
  37. Human Health Risk Assessment Acephate; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washing, DC, 2000; p 20.
  38. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Acephate. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~eMN6Fe:1 (accessed Dec 2007), updated June 2005.
  39. Tucker, B. V. S-methyl-14c-Orthene dermal treatment of rats. Unpublished Report no. 721-11,1974, submitted to WHO by Tomen Agro, Inc., San Francisco, CA, prepared by Chevron Environmental Health Center, Richmond, CA. Pesticide residues in food - 2002: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
  40. Maroni, M.; Catenacci, G.; Galli, D.; Cavallo, D.; Ravazzani, 40. G. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Acephate. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1990, 19, 782-788.
  41. Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, N.; Kita, T.; Kasai, K.; Sato, H. Acephate in Biological Fluids of Two Autopsy Cases after Ingestion of the Chemical. J. Forensic Sci. 2005, 50 (4), 1-4.
  42. Lee, H. Metabolism of orthene in in rats. Unpublished report, 1972, submitted to WHO by Ortho Division of the Chevron Chemical Company. Pesticide residues in food - 1976: Acephate; International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1976.
  43. Nigg, H. N.; Knaak, J. B. Blood Cholinesterase as Human Biomarkers of Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2000, 163, 29-112.
  44. Harrington, M. J. Pesticide Exposure Monitoring, Background and Perspectives on Mandatory Cholinesterase Testing. Agrichemical and Environmental News; Washington State University Cooperative Extension: Pullman, WA, 2002; Vol. 194, pp 1-6.
  45. CDC. Organophosphate Insecticides: Dialkyl Phosphate Metabolites; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, 2010.
  46. Vogue, P. A.; Kerle, E. A.; Jenkins, J. J. OSU Extension Pesticide Properties Database; Oregon State Univeristy: Corvallis, OR, 1994.
  47. Geen, G. H.; Hussain, M. A.; Oloffs, P. C.; McKeown, B. A. Fate and toxicity of acephate (Orthene®) added to a coastal B. C. Stream. J. Environ. Sci. Health 1981, B16 (3), 253-271.
  48. Szeto, S. Y.; MacCarthy, H. R.; Oloffs, P. C.; Shepherd, R. F. The fate of acephate and carbaryl in water. J. Environ. Sci. Health 1979, B14 (6), 635-654.
  49. Fiedler, L. Acephate Residues After Pre-Blossom Treatments: Effects on Small Colonies of Honey Bees. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1987, 38, 594-601.
  50. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2008; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2009.
  51. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2007.
  52. Booth, G. M.; Woodfield, J.; Simmons, D. The effects of Orthene® and Monitor® on small mammal and bird brain cholinesterase activity. Activity Number FS-PNW-Grant No. 49, 1977, submitted to U.S. Forest Service by Douglas-fir Tussock Moth Program. Zinkl, J. G.; Roberts, R. B.; Shea, P. J.; Lasmanis, J. Toxicity of Acephate and Methamidophos to Dark-eyed Juncos. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1981, 10, 185-192.
  53. Zinkl, J. G.; Roberts, R. B.; Henry, C. J.; Lenhart, D. J. Inhibition of Brain Cholinesterase Activity in Forest Birds and Squirrels Exposed to Aerially Applied Acephate. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1980, 24, 676-683.
  54. Fleming, W. J.; Bradbury, S. P. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1981, 8, 885-897.
  55. Vyas, N. B.; Kuenzel, W. J.; Elwood, F. H.; Sauer, J. R. Acephate affects migratory orientation of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1995, 14 (11), 1961-1965.
  56. Geen, G. H.; McKeown, B. A.; Watson, T. A.; Parker, D. B. Effects of Acephate (Orthene®) on Development and Survival of the Salamander, Ambystoma gracile (Baird). J. Environ. Sci. Health 1984, B19 (2), 157-170.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

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