1.800.858.7378 npic@ace.orst.edu
We're open from 8:00AM to 12:00PM Pacific Time, Mon-Fri

2,4-D References


  1. Tomlin, C. D. S. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 14th ed.; British Crop Protection Council: Surrey, UK, 2006.
  2. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 84, Environmental Aspects - 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1989.
  3. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) 2,4-D; EPA 738-R-05-002; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.
  4. Charles, J. M.; Hanley, T. R.; Wilson, R. D.; Van Ravenzwaay, B.; Bus, J. S. Developmental Toxicity Studies in Rats and Rabbits on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and its Forms. Toxicol. Sci. 2001, 60, 121-131.
  5. Carlo, G. L.; Cole, P.; MIller, A. B.; Munro, I. C.; Solomon, K. R.; Squire, R. A. Review of a Study Reporting an Association between 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Canine Malignant Lymphoma: Report of an Expert Panel. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1992, 16, 245-252.
  6. Kamrin, M. A. Pesticide Profiles: Toxicity, Environmental Impact, and Fate; Lewis Publishers: New York, 1997, p 306.
  7. Munro, I. C.; Carlo, G. L.; Orr, J. C.; Sund, K. G.; Wilson, R. M.; Kennepohl, E.; Lynch, B. S.; Jablinske, M.; Lee, N. L. A Comprehensive, Integrated Review and Evaluation of the Scientific Evidence Relating to the Safety of the Herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 1992, 11, (5), 559-664.
  8. FAO. Pesticide Residues in Food - Evaluations Part 1: Residues; FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 152/1, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization: Rome, 1988; Vol. 1, pp 179-189.
  9. Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), 2,4-D; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/source/hsdb/2813 (accessed June 2008), updated June 2005.
  10. Pesticide Products. Pest-Bank [CD-ROM] 2007.
  11. Label Review Manual; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs. https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/label-review-manual (accessed June 2008), updated Sept 2007.
  12. Herbicide Handbook, 8th ed.; Vencill, W.K. Ed.; Weed Science Society of America: Lawrence, KS, 2002; pp 113-115.
  13. Bradberry, S. M.; Proudfoot, A. T.; Vale, J. A. Poisoning Due to Chlorophenoxy Herbicides. Toxicol. Rev. 2004, 23 (2), 65-73.
  14. Peterson, M. E.; Talcott, P. A. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Saunders Elsevier: St. Louis, 2006; pp 734-735.
  15. Campbell, A.; Chapman, M. Handbook of Poisoning in Dogs and Cats; Blackwell Science Ltd.: Oxford, England, 2000; pp 220-221.
  16. Arnold, E. K.; Lovell, R. A.; Beasley, V. R.; Parker, A. J.; Stedelin, J.R. 2,4-D Toxicosis III: An Attempt to Produce 2,4-D Toxicosis in Dogs on Treated Grass Plots. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 1991, 33 (5), 457-461.
  17. Paulino, C. A.; Guerra, J. L.; Oliveira, G. H.; Palmero-Neto, J. Acute, Subchronic and Chronic 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Intoxication in Rats. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 1996, 38 (5), 348-352.
  18. Reigart, J. R.; Roberts, J. R. Chlorophenoxy Herbicides. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999; pp 94-96.
  19. Charles, J. M.; Cunny, H. C.; Wilson, R. D.; Bus, J. S. Comparative Subchronic Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Amine, and Ester in Rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1996, 33, 161-165.
  20. Charles, J. M.; Bond, D. M.; Jeffries, T. K.; Yano, B. L.; Stott, W. T.; Johnson, K. A.; Cunny, H. C.; Wilson, R. D.; Bus, J. S. Chronic Dietary Toxicity/ Oncogenicity Studies on 2,4-Dichlorphenoxyacetic Acid in Rodents. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1996, 33, 166-172.
  21. Charles, J. M.; Dalgard, D. W.; Cunny, H. C.; Wilson, R. D.; Bus, J. S. Comparative Subchronic and Chronic Dietary Toxicity Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Amine, and Ester in the Dog. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1996, 29, 78-85.
  22. Hoppin, J. A.; Umbach, D. M.; London, S. J.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P. Chemical Predictors of Wheeze among Farmer Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002, 165, 683-689.
  23. Kamel, F.; Tanner, C. M.; Umbach, D. M.; Hoppin, J. A.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Blair, A.; Comyns, K.; Goldman, S. M.; Korell, M.; Langston, J. W.; Ross, G. W.; Sandler, D. P. Pesticide Exposure and Self-reported Parkinson's Disease in the Agricultural Health Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2006, 165 (4), 364-374.
  24. Draft List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts to be Considered for Screening Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Fed. Regist. June 18, 2007, 72 (116), 33486-33503.
  25. Hayes, H. M.; Tarone, R. E.; Cantor, K. P.; Jessen, C. R.; McCurnin, 25. D. M.; Richardson, R. C. Case-Control Study of Canine Malignant Lymphoma: Positive Association With Dog Owner's Use of 2,4-Dichlorphenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1991, 83, 1226-1231.
  26. Garabant, D. H.; Philbert, M. A. Review of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Epidemiology and Toxicology. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2002, 32 (4), 233-257.
  27. Gandhi, R.; Wandji, S.-A.; Snedeker, S. Critical Evaluation of Cancer Risks from 2,4-D. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2000, 167, 1-33.
  28. Maire, M. A.; Rast, C.; Landkocz, Y.; Vasseur, P. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: Effects on Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) Cell Transformation, c-Myc Expression, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis. Mutat. Res. 2007, 631, 124-136.
  29. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenicity Risks to Humans. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogencity: An Updating of IARC Monographs, Volumes 1 to 42; International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 1987; Supplement 7.
  30. Madrigal-Bujaidar, E.; Hernandez-Ceruelos, A.; Chamorro, G. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in somatic and germ cells of mice exposed in vivo. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2001, 39, 941-946.
  31. Collins, T. F. X.; Williams, C. H. Teratogenic Studies with 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D in the Hamster. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1971, 6 (6), 559-567.
  32. Lerda, D.; Rizzi, R. Study of reproductive function in persons occupationally exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Mutat. Res. 1991, 6 (6), 1, 47-50.
  33. Brand, R. M.; McMahon, L.; Jendrzejewski, J. L.; Charron, A. R. Transdermal absorption of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid is enhanced by both ethanol consumption and sunscreen application. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007, 456, 93-97.
  34. Brand, R. M.; Spaulding, M.; Mueller, C. Sunscreens Can Increase Dermal Penetration of 2,4-Dichlorphenoxyacetic Acid. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2002, 40 (7), 827-832.
  35. Pont, A. R.; Charron, A. R.; Brand, R. M. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dicholorphenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2004, 195, 348-354.
  36. Kohli, J. D.; Khanna, R. N.; Gupta, B. N.; MDhar, M. M.; Tandon, J. S.; Sircar, K. P. Absorption and Excretion of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Man. Xenobiotica 1974, 4 (2), 97-100.
  37. Sauerhoff, M. W.; Braun, W. H.; Blau, G. E.; Gehring, P. J. The Fate of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Following Oral Administration to Man. Toxicol. 1977, 8, 3-11.
  38. Roberts, T. R. Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemicals - Part 1: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 1998; pp 66-74.
  39. Van Ravenzwaay, B.; Hardwick, T. D.; Needham, D.; Pethen, S.; Lappin, G. J. Comparative metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rat and dog. Xenobiotica 2003, 33 (8), 805-821.
  40. Arnold, E. K.; Beasley, V. R. The Pharmacokinetics of Chlorinated Phenoxy Acid Herbicides: A Literature Review. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 1989, 31 (12), 121-125.
  41. CDC. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2005; pp 390-394.
  42. Olsson, A. O.; Baker, S. E.; Nguyen, J. V.; Romanoff, L. C.; Udunka, S. O.; Walker, R. D.; Flemmen, K. L.; Barr, D. B. A liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method for quantification of specific metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, selected herbicides, and DEET in human urine. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76 (9), 2453-2461.
  43. OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid); U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. https://www.osha.gov/chemicaldata/750 (accessed May 2008), updated April 1999.
  44. Vogue, P.A.; Kerle, E.A.; Jenkins, J.J. OSU Extension Pesticide Properties Database; Oregon State University: Corvallis, OR, 2004.
  45. Wilson, R. D.; Geronimo, J.; Armbruster, J. A. 2,4-D Dissipation in Field Soils After Applications of 2,4-Dimethylamine Salt and 2,4-D Ethylhexyl Ester. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1997, 16 (6), 1239-1246.
  46. Boivin, A.; Amellal, S.; Schiavon, M.; van Genuchten, M. T. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) sorption an ddegradation dynamics in three agricultural soils. Environ. Pollut. 2005, 138, 92-99.
  47. Pesticides in Surface and Groundwater of the United States: Summary of Results of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA); U.S. Geological Survey: Reston, VA, 1998.
  48. McPherson, A. K.; Moreland, R. S.; Atkins, J. B. Occurrence and Distribution of Nutrients, Suspended Sediment, and Pesticides in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee, 1999-2001; Water-Resources Investigations Report 03- 4203, U.S. Geological Survey: Montgomery, AL, 2003; pp 1-2, 44, 57.
  49. Rice, C. P.; Chernyak, S. M.; McConnell, L. L. Henry's Law Constants for Pesticides Measured as a Function of Temperature and Salinity. J. Agric. Chem. 1997, 45, 2291-2298.
  50. Torstensson, N. T. L.; Lundgren, L. N.; Stenstrom, J. Influence of Climatic and Edaphic Factors on Persistence of Glyphosate and 2,4-D in Forest Soils. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 1989, 18, 230-239.
  51. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2003; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods: Washington, DC, 1993-2003.
  52. Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary, Calendar Year 2006; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Washington, DC, 2007.
  53. Relyea, R. A. The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities. Ecolo. Appl. 2005, 15 (2), 618-627.
  54. Intergrated Risk Information System, 2,4-Dichlorphenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) (CASRN 94-75-7); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://epa.gov/ncea/iris/subst/0150.htm (assessed April 2008), updated Jan 2008.
  55. ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs, Based on the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices; American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Worldwide: Cincinnati, 2003; p 24.
  56. Drinking Water Contaminants; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/drinking-water-regulations-and-contaminants (accessed May 2008), updated Feb 2008.

NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). This document is intended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers for making decisions about pesticide use.

Related Topics:

What are pests?

Learn about a pest

Identify a pest

Control a pest

Integrated Pest Management

What are pesticides?





Natural and Biological Pesticides



Other types of pesticides

Facebook Twitter Youtube